British Columbia

British Columbia's geography is epitomized by the variety and intensity of its physical relief, which has defined patterns of settlement and industry since colonization.
Outline map of British Columbia with significant cities and towns
Köppen climate types in British Columbia
The Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver
Shuswap Lake as seen from Sorrento
The Okanagan region has a climate suitable to vineyards.
Mount Robson, Canadian Rockies
Odaray Mountain and Lake O'Hara
Yoho National Park
Cheakamus Lake in Garibaldi Provincial Park
Humpback whale in Sooke coast
'Namgis Thunderbird Transformation Mask, 19th century
Fort San Miguel at Nootka in 1793
Kwakwaka'wakw house pole, second half of the 19th century
Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island, 1851
Cattle near the Maas by Dutch painter Aelbert Cuyp. Moody likened his vision of the nascent Colony of British Columbia to the pastoral scenes painted by Cuyp.
Victoria, 1864
Lord Strathcona drives the Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Craigellachie, November 7, 1885. Completion of the transcontinental railroad was a condition of British Columbia's entry into Confederation.
Memorial to the "last spike" in Craigellachie
Statue of Queen Victoria outside the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Internment camp for Japanese Canadians during World War II
W.A.C. Bennett, 25th premier of British Columbia
British Columbia's pavilion for Expo 86, Vancouver
The Coquihalla Highway was one of the legacies of the Expo 86 world's fair, though creation of the toll highway sparked controversy. Tolling was removed in 2008.
The cauldron of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver
Population density map of British Columbia, with regional district borders shown
The Vancouver skyline
Canada Place in Downtown Vancouver
Entrance to Telus Garden
The British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Coat of arms' escutcheon of the current lieutenant governor
John Horgan is premier, BC's head of government.
The meeting chamber of the Legislative Assembly
The flower of the Pacific dogwood is often associated with British Columbia.
The Alex Fraser Bridge on Highway 91 between Richmond and Delta
British Columbia Highway 1 near Brentwood, Burnaby
CPR train traversing the Stoney Creek Bridge
Spirit of Vancouver Island S-class ferry
Ice sailing in Whistler
Shoreline Trail in Victoria
Hatley Castle on the campus of Royal Roads University
Aerial view of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby
Quest University Canada Academic Building, aerial view

Westernmost province of Canada.

- British Columbia

500 related topics


First Nations in Canada

Term used to identify those Indigenous Canadian peoples who are neither Inuit nor Métis.

Squamish woman
A traditional Iroquois longhouse.
Details of Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage by Eastman Johnson
Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe.
Linguistic areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact.
Non-indigenous land claims in North America, 1750–2008.
Conference between the French and First Nations leaders by Émile Louis Vernier.
Fur traders in Canada, trading with First Nations, 1777
Assiniboine hunting buffalo, c. 1851
Pîhtokahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker)
Mi'kmaq Grand Chief Jacques-Pierre Peminuit Paul (3rd from left with beard) meets Governor General of Canada, Marquess of Lorne, Red Chamber, Province House, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1879
St. Paul's Indian Industrial School, Manitoba, 1901
Buying provisions, Hudson's Bay territory, 1870s
Ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief (1916)
Aboriginal War Veterans monument
Defence of Cree rights
David Laird explaining
terms of Treaty 8, Fort Vermilion, 1899
Ovide Mercredi, former national chief of the Assembly of First Nations
Haida totem pole, Thunderbird Park, Victoria, British Columbia
Pow-wow at Eel Ground First Nation
People who self-identify as having North American Indian ancestors are the plurality in large areas of Canada (areas coloured in brown).

Roughly half are located in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.

Northwest Territories

Federal territory of Canada.

Köppen climate types in the Northwest Territories
Members of the Coppermine expedition caught by a storm in Coronation Gulf, August 1821
Map of the North-Western Territory and Rupert's Land, 1859
A proclamation concerning the formation of the North-West Territories, from recently transferred territories to the Canadian government
Sign for an eye clinic in Yellowknife with all 11 official territorial languages
Aerial view of the Diavik Diamond Mine in the North Slave Region
Nahanni National Park Reserve, one of several national parks and reserves in the Northwest Territories
The chamber of the Northwest Territories Legislative Building
Administrative regions of the Northwest Territories
A snow fort at the annual Snowking Winter Festival in Yellowknife
Dempster Highway, south of Inuvik
Entrance to Yellowknife Airport, the largest airport in the territory

The Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the south, and may touch Manitoba to the southeast (historic surveys being uncertain) at a quadripoint including Nunavut and Saskatchewan.

Fraser Canyon Gold Rush

Cabin on the Fraser, B.C., "The Bacon is Cooked", About 1862

The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1858 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton.

New Westminster

A view of New Westminster from the Fraser River, c. 1865
Moody likened his vision of the nascent Colony of British Columbia to the pastoral scenes painted by Aelbert Cuyp.
Coquitlam City, of New Westminster
City of New Westminster in flames, September 10, 1898
The BC Penitentiary being constructed c. 1877
Contrasting views of Columbia Street in 1932 and 2008
A replica of a Queen Anne house opposite Queens Park
View towards the West End and Uptown neighbourhoods from the Queensborough Bridge
Westminster Quay
May Day celebrations in 1913. Young girls dance around a maypole.
The May Queen c. 1887
Wayne Wright sets off an anvil shot during the 2008 Ancient and Honourable Hyack Anvil Battery Salute.
New Westminster Bridge
An Expo Line train approaching New Westminster station
Memorial cairn at Grimston Park in New Westminster

New Westminster (colloquially known as New West) is a city in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, and a member municipality of the Metro Vancouver Regional District.


Tsilhqotin chiefs pose with new highway signage displaying Tsilhqotin community names
Tsilhqotin baby cradle
Lhatŝaŝʔin (Klatsassin) a chief hanged after the Chilcotin War

The Tsilhqotin or Chilcotin ("People of the river", ; also spelled Chilcotin, Tsilhqutin, Tŝinlhqotin, Chilkhodin, Tsilkótin, Tsilkotin) are a North American tribal government of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group that live in what is now known as British Columbia, Canada.


Smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories.

The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon
Köppen climate types in Yukon
Hill-side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush, c. 1899
A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon. The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining.
Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon.
The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge.
A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse
The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory's legislative assembly.
Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type
From the early 19th century to 1870, the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson's Bay Company as the North-Western Territory.
Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon.
The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon.

km mostly along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south.

Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast

The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities.

Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe of the Tlingit people, ca. 1913
Three young Chinook men
Ceremonial cape, Tlingit people
Tsimshian people in 1900
Kwakwakaʼwakw people at a wedding ceremony in 1914
A Squamish elder woman spinning wool on spindle-whorl, circa 1893
A Kwakwakaʼwakw canoe in 1910.
A canoe awaiting traditional invitation to make landfall by the local S'Klallam people at a beach in Port Angeles, Washington, in 2010. Canoes from several Coast Salish groups arrived for a ceremony commemorating the official naming of the Salish Sea.
Root digging stick with handle
The Kwakwakaʼwakw continue the practice of potlatch. Illustrated here is Wawadit'la in Thunderbird Park, Victoria, (aka Mungo Martin House) a Kwakw a k a 'wakw "big house" built by Chief Mungo Martin in 1953. Very wealthy and prominent hosts would have a plankhouse specifically for potlatching and for housing guests.
Totem poles in Victoria, British Columbia

The term Northwest Coast or North West Coast is used in anthropology to refer to the groups of Indigenous people residing along the coast of what is now called British Columbia, Washington State, parts of Alaska, Oregon, and Northern California.

Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national administrative divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution.

Breakdown of Canada's population from the 2016 census by province/territory
Territorial evolution of the borders and the names of Canada's provinces and territories
"O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada featuring arms of the Canadian provinces and territories as of 1965
Alberta Legislature Building
British Columbia Parliament Buildings
Manitoba Legislative Building
New Brunswick Legislative Building
Newfoundland and Labrador Confederation Building
Nova Scotia Province House
Ontario Legislative Building
Prince Edward Island Province House
Quebec Parliament Building
Saskatchewan Legislative Building
Northwest Territories Legislative Building
Nunavut Legislative Building
Yukon Legislative Building

Its four largest provinces by area (Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta) are also (with Quebec and Ontario switched in order) its most populous; together they account for 86% of the country's population.

Fort Victoria (British Columbia)

Inside of Fort Victoria looking towards the east gate, c. 1850s
Site where Fort Victoria was situated. The fort was demolished in 1864.

Fort Victoria began as a fur trading post of the Hudson’s Bay Company and was the headquarters of HBC operations in the Columbia District, a large fur trading area now part of the province of British Columbia, Canada and the U.S. state of Washington.

Richard Clement Moody

British governor, engineer, architect, and soldier.

Richard Clement Moody, 1859
Richard Clement was born, in 1813, at St. Ann's Garrison, Bridgetown, Barbados.
Richard Clement Moody became Head of School at Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at 15 years of age.
Moody was the founder of British Columbia
Moody designed the first Coat of arms of British Columbia

He is best known for being the founder and the first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia; and for being Commanding Executive Officer of Malta during the Crimean War; and for being the first British Governor of the Falkland Islands.