A report on British Raj

1909 Map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and Princely states in yellow
1909 Map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and Princely states in yellow
Viceroy Curzon (1899–1905). He promoted many reforms but his partitioning of Bengal into Muslim and Hindu provinces caused outrage.
Cover of a 1909 issue of the Tamil magazine Vijaya showing "Mother India" with her diverse progeny and the rallying cry "Vande Mataram"
Sepoy Khudadad Khan, the first Indian to be awarded the Victoria Cross, the British Empire's highest war-time medal for gallantry. Khan, from Chakwal District, Punjab (present-day Pakistan) was fighting on the Western Front in 1914.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League.
Mahatma Gandhi (seated in carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receiving a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Gandhi at the time of the Kheda Satyagraha, 1918
Sidney Rowlatt, the British judge under whose chairmanship the Rowlatt Committee recommended stricter anti-sedition laws
Headlines about the Rowlatt Bills (1919) from a nationalist newspaper in India. Although all non-official Indians on the Legislative Council voted against the Rowlatt Bills, the government was able to force their passage by using its majority.
The Jallianwala Bagh in 1919, a few months after the massacre which had occurred on 13 April
A. K. Fazlul Huq, known as the Sher-e-Bangla or Tiger of Bengal, was the first elected Premier of Bengal, leader of the K. P. P. and an important ally of the All India Muslim League.
Subhas Chandra Bose (second from left) with Heinrich Himmler (right), 1942
The series of stamps, "Victory", issued by the Government of India to commemorate the allied victory in World War II
Members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India meeting Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Far left is Lord Pethick Lawrence; far right is Sir Stafford Cripps
Percentage of Hindus by district, 1909
Percentage of Muslims by district, 1909
Sir Charles Wood (1800–1885) was President of the Board of Control of the East India Company from 1852 to 1855; he shaped British education policy in India, and was Secretary of State for India from 1859 to 1866.
Lord Canning, the last governor-general of India under Company rule and the first viceroy of India under Crown rule
Lord Salisbury was Secretary of State for India from 1874 to 1878.
Elephant Carriage of the Maharaja of Rewa, Delhi Durbar of 1903
One Mohur depicting Queen Victoria (1862)
The railway network of India in 1871, all major cities, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, as well as Delhi are connected
The railway network of India in 1909, when it was the fourth largest railway network in the world
"The most magnificent railway station in the world." says the caption of the stereographic tourist picture of Victoria Terminus, Bombay, which was completed in 1888
The Queen's Own Madras Sappers and Miners, 1896
The global contribution to world's GDP by major economies from 1 CE to 2003 CE according to Angus Maddison's estimates. Up until the early 18th century, China and India were the two largest economies by GDP output.
The 1921 Census of British India shows 69 million Muslims, 217 million Hindus out of a total population of 316 million.
Child who starved to death during the Bengal famine of 1943
The University of Lucknow, founded by the British in 1867
The University of Calcutta, established in 1857, is one of the three oldest modern state universities in India.
St. Paul's Cathedral was built in 1847 and served as the chair of the Bishop of Calcutta, who served as the metropolitan of the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon.
The British Indian Empire and surrounding countries in 1909
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of Lord Dalhousie's Doctrine of Lapse
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, founder of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, later the Aligarh Muslim University, wrote one of the early critiques, The Causes of the Indian Mutiny.
An 1887 souvenir portrait of Queen Victoria as Empress of India, 30 years after the war
Viceroy, Lord Canning, meets the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, Ranbir Singh, 9 March 1860. Kashmir, like Hyderabad, Mysore, and the states of the Rajputana, supported the British during the Rebellion of 1857.
1909 Prevailing Religions, map of British India, 1909, showing the majority religions based on the Census of 1901
Hakim Ajmal Khan, a founder of the Muslim League, became the president of the Indian National Congress in 1921.
Lord Minto, the Conservative viceroy met with the Muslim delegation in June 1906. The Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 called for separate Muslim electorates.
Mahatma Gandhi with Annie Besant en route to a meeting in Madras in September 1921. Earlier, in Madurai, on 21 September 1921, Gandhi had adopted the loin-cloth for the first time as a symbol of his identification with India's poor.
An early 1920s poster advertising a Congress non-co-operation "Public Meeting" and a "Bonfire of Foreign Clothes" in Bombay, and expressing support for the "Karachi Khilafat Conference"
Hindus and Muslims, displaying the flags of both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, collecting clothes to be later burnt as a part of the non-cooperation movement initiated by Gandhi
Photograph of the staff and students of the National College, Lahore, founded in 1921 by Lala Lajpat Rai for students preparing for the non-co-operation movement. Standing, fourth from the right, is future revolutionary Bhagat Singh.
British prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald, three places to the right of Gandhi (to the viewer's left) at the 2nd Round Table Conference. Samuel Hoare is two places to Gandhi's right. Foreground, fourth from left, is B. R. Ambedkar representing the "Depressed Classes"
A second-day cancellation of the series "Inauguration of New Delhi", 27 February 1931, commemorating the new city designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker
A first-day cover issued on 1 April 1937 commemorating the separation of Burma from the British Indian Empire
Mahatma Gandhi (centre-right) and Rajendra Prasad (centre-left) on their way to meet the viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, on 13 October 1939, after the outbreak of World War II
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan (centre)
Newly arrived Indian troops on the quayside in Singapore, November 1941
Indian Army troops in action during Operation Crusader in the Western Desert Campaign in North Africa in November/December 1941
Two silver one rupee coins used in India during the British Raj, showing Victoria, Queen, 1862 (left) and Victoria, Empress, 1886 (right)
Silver one rupee coins showing Edward VII, King-Emperor, 1903 (left) and 1908 (right)
Silver one rupee coins used in India during the British Raj, showing George V, King-Emperor, 1913 (left) and 1919 (right)
One rupee coins showing George VI, King-Emperor, 1940 (left) and just before India's independence in 1947 (right){{efn|The only other emperor during this period, Edward VIII (reigned January to December 1936), did not issue any Indian currency under his name.}}
The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on November 1, 1858.
The Agra canal ({{circa|1873}}), a year from completion, was closed to navigation in 1904 to increase irrigation during a famine.
Lord Ripon, the Liberal Viceroy of India, who instituted the Famine Code. 1880
Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912), who proposed the idea of the Indian National Congress in a letter to graduates of Calcutta University.
Congress, Bombay, December 28, 1885. Third row (middle) (l. to r.) Dadabhai Naoroji, Hume, W. C. Bonerjee, and Pherozeshah Mehta.
Poverty and the Un-British Rule in India, 1901, by Naoroji, Member, British Parliament (1892–1895), and Congress president (1886, 1893, 1906).
Mehta, lawyer, businessman, and president of the sixth session of the Indian National Congress in 1890.
Congress moderate Sir Surendranath Banerjee led the opposition with the Swadeshi movement.
Annie Besant shown with the Theosophists in Adyar, Madras in 1912 four years before she founded an Indian Home Rule League.{{efn|Seated l. to r. are: Jiddhu Krisnamurthi, Besant, and Charles Webster Leadbeater.}}

Founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.

- British Raj
1909 Map of India, showing British India in two shades of pink and Princely states in yellow

134 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)

Partition of India

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The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)
British Indian Empire in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (seated in the carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Congress in which Azad was elected president for the second time
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan centre
The Partition of India: green regions were all part of Pakistan by 1948, and orange ones part of India. The darker-shaded regions represent the Punjab and Bengal provinces partitioned by the Radcliffe Line. The grey areas represent some of the key princely states that were eventually integrated into India or Pakistan.
Mountbatten with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947.
A refugee special train at Ambala Station during the partition of India
A crowd of Muslims at the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi, which had been converted into a vast camp for Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains.

The partition was outlined in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, i.e. Crown rule in India.

India

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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

British Crown rule began in 1858.

Gandhi in London, 1931

Mahatma Gandhi

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Gandhi in London, 1931
Gandhi (right) with his eldest brother Laxmidas in 1886.
Gandhi in London as a law student
This bronze statue of Gandhi commemorating the centenary of the incident at the Pietermaritzburg Railway Station was unveiled by Archbishop Desmond Tutu on Church Street, Pietermaritzburg, in June 1993
Gandhi with the stretcher-bearers of the Indian Ambulance Corps during the Boer War.
Gandhi (left) and his wife Kasturba (right) (1902)
Gandhi photographed in South Africa (1909)
Gandhi in 1918, at the time of the Kheda and Champaran Satyagrahas
Gandhi with Dr. Annie Besant en route to a meeting in Madras in September 1921. Earlier, in Madurai, on 21 September 1921, Gandhi had adopted the loin-cloth for the first time as a symbol of his identification with India's poor.
Gandhi spinning yarn, in the late 1920s
Indian workers on strike in support of Gandhi in 1930.
Gandhi and his personal assistant Mahadev Desai at Birla House, 1939
An admiring East End crowd gathers to witness the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi, 1931
In 1946, Gandhi with Jawaharlal Nehru, his designated political heir
Gandhi in 1942, the year he launched the Quit India Movement
Gandhi with Muhammad Ali Jinnah in 1944
Gandhi in 1947, with Louis Mountbatten, Britain's last Viceroy of India, and his wife Edwina Mountbatten
Memorial where Gandhi was assassinated in 1948. His stylised footsteps lead to the memorial.
Gandhi's funeral was marked by millions of Indians.
Cremation of Mahatma Gandhi at Rajghat, 31 January 1948. It was attended by Jawaharlal Nehru, Louis and Edwina Mountbatten, Maulana Azad, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sarojini Naidu and other national leaders. His son Devdas Gandhi lit the pyre.
Gandhi with poet Rabindranath Tagore, 1940
Mohandas K. Gandhi and other residents of Tolstoy Farm, South Africa, 1910
Plaque displaying one of Gandhi's quotes on rumour
"God is truth. The way to truth lies through ahimsa (nonviolence)" – Sabarmati, 13 March 1927
Gandhi picking salt during Salt Satyagraha to defy colonial law giving salt collection monopoly to the British. His satyagraha attracted vast numbers of Indian men and women.
Gandhi with textile workers at Darwen, Lancashire, 26 September 1931
Gandhi's last political protest using fasting, in January 1948
Coverage of the assassination attempt, The Bombay Chronicle, 27 June 1934
Young India, a weekly journal published by Gandhi from 1919 to 1932
Statue of Mahatma Gandhi at York University
Mahatma Gandhi on a 1969 postage stamp of the Soviet Union
Mahatma Gandhi at Praça Túlio Fontoura, São Paulo, Brazil.
Monument to Gandhi in Madrid, Spain
The Gandhi Mandapam, a temple in Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu in India, was erected to honour M.K. Gandhi.
Family tree of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi. Source: Gandhi Ashram Sabarmati
Commemorative plaque at 20 Baron's Court Road, Barons Court, London

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Bapu, was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist and political ethicist who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British rule, and to later inspire movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

A 1912 map of Northern India, showing the centres of the rebellion.

Indian Rebellion of 1857

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Major uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

Major uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

A 1912 map of Northern India, showing the centres of the rebellion.
India in 1765 and 1805, showing East India Company-governed territories in pink
India in 1837 and 1857, showing East India Company-governed territories in pink
Two sepoy officers; a private sepoy, 1820s
A scene from the 1857 Indian Rebellion (Bengal Army).
Indian mutiny map showing position of troops on 1 May 1857
"The Sepoy revolt at Meerut," wood-engraving from the Illustrated London News, 1857
An 1858 photograph by Felice Beato of a mosque in Meerut where some of the rebel soldiers may have prayed
Wood-engraving depicting the massacre of officers by insurgent cavalry at Delhi
The Flagstaff Tower, Delhi, where the British survivors of the rebellion gathered on 11 May 1857; photographed by Felice Beato
States during the rebellion
Troops of the Native Allies by George Francklin Atkinson, 1859.
Sikh Troops Dividing the Spoil Taken from Mutineers, circa 1860
Fugitive British officers and their families attacked by mutineers.
A wood-engraving of Nynee Tal (today Nainital) and accompanying story in the Illustrated London News, 15 August 1857, describing how the resort town in the Himalayas served as a refuge for British families escaping from the rebellion of 1857 in Delhi and Meerut.
Attack of the mutineers on the Redan Battery at Lucknow, 30 July 1857
Assault on Delhi and capture of the Cashmere Gate, 14 September 1857
Capture of Delhi 1857.
Capture of Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons by William Hodson at Humayun's tomb on 20 September 1857
Wood-engraving depicting Tatya Tope's Soldiery
A memorial erected (circa 1860) by the British after the Mutiny at the Bibighar Well. After India's Independence the statue was moved to the All Souls Memorial Church, Cawnpore. Albumen silver print by Samuel Bourne, 1860
A contemporary image of the massacre at the Satichaura Ghat
The interior of the Secundra Bagh, several months after its storming during the second relief of Lucknow. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1858
Jhansi Fort, which was taken over by rebel forces, and subsequently defended against British recapture by the Rani of Jhansi
Wood-engraving of the execution of mutineers at Peshawar
Marble Lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers in Jhelum
Lieutenant William Alexander Kerr, 24th Bombay Native Infantry, near Kolapore, July 1857
The Relief of Lucknow by Thomas Jones Barker
British soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh, Lucknow, after its recapture (steel engraving, late 1850s)
Execution of mutineers by blowing from a gun by the British, 8 September 1857.
Justice, a print by Sir John Tenniel in a September 1857 issue of Punch
Bahadur Shah Zafar (the last Mughal emperor) in Delhi, awaiting trial by the British for his role in the Uprising. Photograph by Robert Tytler and Charles Shepherd, May 1858
The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on 1 November 1858. "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects." (p. 2)
Captain C Scott of the Gen. Sir. Hope Grant's Column, Madras Regiment, who fell on the attack of Fort of Kohlee, 1858. Memorial at the St. Mary's Church, Madras
Memorial inside the York Minster
The Mutiny Memorial in Delhi, a monument to those killed on the British side during the fighting.
Suppression of the Indian Revolt by the English, which depicts the execution of mutineers by blowing from a gun by the British, a painting by Vasily Vereshchagin c. 1884. Note: This painting was allegedly bought by the British crown and possibly destroyed (current whereabouts unknown). It anachronistically depicts the events of 1857 with soldiers wearing (then current) uniforms of the late 19th century.
The hanging of two participants in the Indian Rebellion, Sepoys of the 31st Native Infantry. Albumen silver print by Felice Beato, 1857.
The National Youth rally at the National Celebration to Commemorate 150th Anniversary of the First War of Independence, 1857 at Red Fort, in Delhi on 11 May 2007
Henry Nelson O'Neil's 1857 painting Eastward Ho! depicting British soldiers saying farewell to their loved ones as they embark on a deployment to India.
Charles Canning, the Governor-General of India during the rebellion.
Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856, who devised the Doctrine of Lapse.
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Maratha-ruled Jhansi, one of the principal leaders of the rebellion who earlier had lost her kingdom as a result of the Doctrine of Lapse.
Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Emperor, crowned Emperor of India, by the Indian troops, he was deposed by the British, and died in exile in Burma
The Jantar Mantar observatory in Delhi in 1858, damaged in the fighting
Mortar damage to Kashmiri Gate, Delhi, 1858
Hindu Rao's house in Delhi, now a hospital, was extensively damaged in the fighting
Bank of Delhi was attacked by mortar and gunfire
Photograph entitled, "The Hospital in General Wheeler's entrenchment, Cawnpore". (1858) The hospital was the site of the first major loss of British lives in Cawnpore
1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat on the banks of the Ganges River, where on 27 June 1857 many British men lost their lives and the surviving women and children were taken prisoner by the rebels.
Bibigarh house where British women and children were killed and the well where their bodies were found, 1858.
The Bibighar Well site where a memorial had been built. Samuel Bourne, 1860.

India was thereafter administered directly by the British government in the new British Raj.

Bangladesh

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Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colony.

Jinnah in 1945

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan.

Barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan.

Jinnah in 1945
Portrait of Jinnah's father, Jinnahbhai Poonja
Lincoln's Inn, seen in 2006
Jinnah as a barrister
Jinnah in 1910
Marriage certificate of Jinnah and Rattanbai Petit
Jinnah's passport
Jinnah (front, left) with the Working Committee of the Muslim League after a meeting in Lucknow, October 1937
Jinnah addresses the Muslim League session at Patna, 1938
Jinnah seated with Iqbal at the round table conference
The leaders of the Muslim League, 1940. Jinnah is seated at centre.
Jinnah and Gandhi arguing in 1939
Jinnah makes a speech in New Delhi, 1943
Jinnah with Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay, 1944
Nehru (left) and Jinnah walk together at Simla, 1946
Lord Louis Mountbatten and his wife Edwina Mountbatten with Jinnah in 1947
Jinnah announcing the creation of Pakistan over All India Radio on 3 June 1947
Jinnah speaking at the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 14 August 1947
Jinnah's arrival at Lahore to discuss the Kashmir crisis in 1948
Jinnah spent many of the last days of his life at Quaid-e-Azam Residency, Ziarat, Pakistan.
Jinnah and his sister Fatima Jinnah's wax statues at the museum in the Pakistan Monument, Islamabad
Special services and prayers were held in the Kwitang mosque of Jakarta (Indonesia) after the death of Jinnah.
Tomb of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi
Statue of Jinnah at York University in Toronto
Blue Plaque in London dedicated to Jinnah

Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Bombay High Court, and took an interest in national politics, which eventually replaced his legal practice.

Dominion of India

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Independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations existing between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950.

Independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations existing between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950.

Administrative divisions of India, 1949
Clement Attlee left with King George VI on the grounds of Buckingham Palace after Labour Party's victory in the general elections, 26 July 1945.
Administrative divisions of India, 1949
Lord Mountbatten swearing in Jawaharlal Nehru as the first prime minister of independent India on 15 August 1947
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, left, prime minister of Bengal (1946–1947) and later prime minister of Pakistan, and Mahatma Gandhi during their 73-hour fast in Calcutta to stop religious violence in the days after India's independence day
Lady Edwina Mountbatten visiting a refugee camp just outside Delhi in June 1947.
Kashmir showing the regions controlled by India and Pakistan. The Line of Control, the successor of cease-fire line of 1949, separates the two regions.
Nehru visiting an Indian soldier at the Brigade Headquarters Military Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir, in May 1948
Mahatma Gandhi's ashes on a carriage being drawn by soldiers of the Indian army for immersion in the Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, February 1948
Sardar Patel (centre) leaving the Durbar Hall in Jaipur after the inauguration of the Rajasthan Union in 1949. On the right is Man Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur and the first Rajpramukh of the Union; on the left is the Maharaja of Kotah
The preamble of the Constitution of India.
A destitute mother and child on the pavement in Calcutta during the Bengal famine of 1943.
Literacy day in India, 1947
Untouchable's leader, B. R. Ambedkar, Chairman, Drafting Committee, Constitution of India, at the premiere of the film Paro (Story of an Untouchable girl), West End Theatre, Bombay, 1949
India: the prevailing religions, 1909, Imperial Gazetteer of India.
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs and others.
left|thumb|Emergency trains crowded with desperate refugees
thumb|left|B. R. Ambedkar, presenting the final draft of the Constitution of India to Rajendra Prasad, president of the Constituent Assembly of India, 25 November 1949
The Indian contingent marching at the 1948 London Olympics. India won the gold medal in Field Hockey
Jawaharlal Nehru delivering his 'Tryst with Destiny' speech at Parliament House in New Delhi during the midnight session of the Constituent Assembly on 14–15 August 1947
The 3 1⁄2 annas stamp showing the tricolour Flag of India (for foreign surface mail) issued 15 August 1947
left|thumb|Prime ministers of the Commonwealth with King George VI (5th fr left), London 13 October 1948; Don Stephen Senanayake, Ceylon (2nd fr left); Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan (3rd fr left); C. R. Attlee (UK, 5th fr right) and Jawaharlal Nehru of India (far right).<ref name=commonwealth-PMs>{{citation|last=Capie|first=David|chapter=Asia and New Zealand - War, empire and the new Commonwealth|title=Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand|chapter-url=http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/36232/meeting-of-commonwealth-prime-ministers-london-1948|year=2012|access-date=19 September 2021}}</ref>
Nehru being received at the Washington National Airport by the President Harry S. Truman, 11 October 1949
Governor-General Rajagopalachari declares India a Republic at Darbar Hall on 26 January 1950

The empire, also called the British Raj and sometimes the British Indian Empire, consisted of regions, collectively called British India, that were directly administered by the British government, and regions, called the princely states, that were ruled by Indian rulers under a system of paramountcy.

Bengal Presidency

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Subdivision of the British Empire in India.

Subdivision of the British Empire in India.

Map showing the Bengal Presidency's jurisdiction in the 1860s
Jahangir first permitted the East India Company (HEIC) to trade in Bengal
Map showing the Bengal Presidency's jurisdiction in the 1860s
Robert Clive at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, which marked the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daulah
The Impeachment of Warren Hastings
Johnston's Pier, Singapore in 1856
A statue in Calcutta Victoria Memorial of Lord Curzon, who announced the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam on 16 October 1905
In 1911, King George V announced the annulment of the first partition of Bengal and the transfer of British Raj India's capital from Calcutta to New Delhi
Fort William, 1828
Calcutta High Court, 1860s
The Legislative Council met in Calcutta Town Hall
The first elected cabinet of Bengal led by A. K. Fazlul Huq in 1937
The 13th Dalai Lama in Calcutta in 1910
Tomb of Jonathan Henry Lovett (1779–1805), who acted as Bengali ambassador to Qajar Persia.
Statue of Lord William Bentinck in Calcutta Victoria Memorial. As Governor-General, Bentinck made English the medium of instruction in schools and phased out Persian.
Raja Ram Mohun Roy, a native reformer and educationist
Calcutta Port, 1885
Labourers at a jute mill in the Port of Narayanganj, 1906
Lord Dalhousie is credited for developing railways, telegraph and postal services
The certificate of a shareholder in the Bengal Provincial Railway Company Limited
The Viceroy of India arrives in the Port of Dhaka in 1908
Royal Air Force planes in Chittagong Airfield
Bengal Horse Artillery, 1860
Bengal Sappers in Kabul, 1879
The Bengal famine of 1943
Rabindranath Tagore (while in London in 1879) and Kazi Nazrul Islam (while in the British Indian Army in 1917–1920)
The frontpage of Hicky's Bengal Gazette on 29 January 1780
The Company style of Mughal miniatures
Painting by Johann Zoffany of Governor-General Warren Hastings and his wife Marian at their garden in Alipore
Viceroy's Cup Day at the Calcutta Race Course
Bengal Presidency, 1776
Bengal Presidency, 1786
Map showing northern regions of the Presidency in 1858, including princely states of Kashmir, Rajputana Agency, and the Punjab
Map showing growth of British rule in Bengal and Burma
Map denoting Lower Bengal in 1870, including Bengal proper, Orissa, Bihar and Assam; and princely states
Map showing the result of the partition of Bengal in 1905. The western part (Bengal) gained parts of Orissa, while the eastern part (Eastern Bengal and Assam) regained Assam that had been made a separate province in 1874.
Bengal Province in 1931 and adjoining princely states of Hill Tippera and Cooch Behar State
Howrah Bridge in 1945
Victoria Memorial, Kolkata
Writer's Building
Ruplal House
Hardinge Bridge, 1915
Dacca College, 1904
Dacca Madrasa, 1904
Nawab's Shahbagh Garden, 1904
Jahangir first permitted the East India Company (HEIC) to trade in Bengal

After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the British government assumed direct administration of India.

East India Company

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English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600.

James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601
fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies
The emperor Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour, watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615 to 1618, and others
Document with the original vermilion seal of Tokugawa Ieyasu, granting trade privileges in Japan to the East India Company in 1613
French illustration of Sir Josiah Child requesting a pardon from the Emperor Aurangzeb
Rear view of the East India Company's Factory at Cossimbazar
Company painting depicting an official of the East India Company, c. 1760
Saltpetre used for gunpowder was one of the major trade goods of the company
The expanded East India House, London, painted by Thomas Malton, c. 1800
Addiscombe Seminary, photographed in c.1859, with cadets in the foreground
Ships in Bombay Harbour, c. 1731
was one of the five East Indiamen the Spanish fleet captured in 1780
English, Dutch and Danish factories at Mocha
An 18th-century depiction of Henry Every, with the Fancy shown engaging its prey in the background
British pirates that fought during the Child's War engaging the Ganj-i-Sawai
Depiction of Captain Every's encounter with the Mughal Emperor's granddaughter after his September 1695 capture of the Mughal trader Ganj-i-Sawai
Downman (1685)
Lens (1700)
National Geographic (1917)
Rees (1820)
Laurie (1842)
1600–1707
1707–1801
1801–1874
HEIC Merchant's mark on a Blue Scinde Dawk postage stamp (1852)
The East offering its riches to Britannia - Roma Spiridone, 1778 - BL Foster 245
Engraving of East India House, Leadenhall Street (1766)

Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and lasted until 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

Pakistan

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Country in South Asia.

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

The region that comprises the modern state of Pakistan was the realm of multiple empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid; briefly that of Alexander the Great; the Seleucid, the Maurya, the Kushan, the Gupta; the Umayyad Caliphate in its southern regions, the Hindu Shahis, the Ghaznavids, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals, the Durranis, the Sikh Empire, British East India Company rule, and most recently, the British Indian Empire from 1858 to 1947.