British Somaliland

SomalilandSomaliland ProtectorateBritish Somaliland ProtectorateBritishBritish SomaliaState of SomalilandBritainBritish oneBritish protectorate of SomalilandBritish protectrate
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland.wikipedia
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Somaliland

RegionRepublic of SomalilandDistrict
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland.
The government of the de facto state of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the former British Somaliland protectorate, which, in the form of the briefly independent State of Somaliland, united as scheduled on 1 July 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.

Italian Somaliland

Italian SomaliaSomaliaSomaliland
For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somalia, French Somaliland and Ethiopia. Five days later, on 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland voluntarily united with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somalia) to form the Somali Republic.
On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland united as scheduled with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic.

State of Somaliland

Somalilandformer British Somaliland
On 26 June 1960, British Somaliland declared independence as the State of Somaliland.
It was the name assumed by the former British Somaliland protectorate in the five days between June 26, 1960 and July 1, 1960, when the territory prepared for union as scheduled with the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian Administration (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic, the first incarnation of modern-day Somalia.

Somali Republic

SomaliaRepublic of Somalia1960 independence
Five days later, on 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland voluntarily united with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somalia) to form the Somali Republic.
The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, الجمهورية الصومالية ) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).

Kingdom of Italy

ItalyItalianFascist Italy
From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa.
These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Libya, Ethiopia (occupied by Italy from 1936 to 1941), Albania, British Somaliland, Greece (occupied in World War II), Tunisia, Croatia (Italian and German client state in World War II), Kosovo (occupied in World War II), Montenegro (occupied in World War II) and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin (see Italian concession in Tianjin).

French Somaliland

French Somali CoastFrench SomaliaFrench
For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somalia, French Somaliland and Ethiopia.
Although the population fell after the completion of the line to Dire Dawa and the original company failed and required a government bail-out, the rail link allowed the territory to quickly supersede the caravan-based trade carried on at Zeila (then in the British area of Somaliland) and become the premier port for coffee and other goods leaving southern Ethiopia and the Ogaden through Harar.

Trust Territory of Somaliland

Trust Territory of Somaliatrusteeship periodSomalia
Five days later, on 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland voluntarily united with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somalia) to form the Somali Republic.
In 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) became independent, following in the footsteps of the briefly extant State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland) which had gained independence five days earlier, with Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal as Prime Minister on June 26, 1960.

Italian East Africa

Italian occupationAfrica Orientale ItalianaItalian occupation of Ethiopia
From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa.
(The Kingdom of Egypt remained neutral during World War II, but the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 allowed the British to occupy Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.) Egypt, the Suez Canal, French Somaliland and British Somaliland were also vulnerable to invasion, but the Comando Supremo (Italian General Staff) had planned for a war after 1942.

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
The British garrisoned the protectorate from Aden and administered it from their British India colony until 1898.
In addition, at various times, it included Aden (from 1858 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867).

Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans from the Isaaq, Issa, Gadabursi, and Warsangali clans the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.
Following World War II, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates.

Isaaq

Habar JecloArapSheikh Isaaq Bin Ahmed Al Hashimi
In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans from the Isaaq, Issa, Gadabursi, and Warsangali clans the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.
The Isaaq clan along with other northern Somali tribes were under British Somaliland protectorate administration from 1884 to 1960.

Somaliland Camel Corps

Camel CorpsCamel ConstabularySomali Camel Corps
In 1914, the British created the Somaliland Camel Corps to assist in maintaining order in British Somaliland.
The Somaliland Camel Corps (SCC) also referred to as the Somali Camel Corps, was a unit of the British Army based in British Somaliland.

Warsangali

Warsangeli
In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans from the Isaaq, Issa, Gadabursi, and Warsangali clans the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.
The Warsangali also have the oldest Warsangali Sultanate amongst the Somali clans who inhabit the area comprising the former British Somaliland protectorate.

Somaliland campaign (1920)

Somaliland campaign1920 conflict between British forces and Somaliland dervishesaerially bombarded
In 1920, the British launched their fifth and final expedition against Hassan and his followers.
Following the end of World War I, the British once again turned their attention to the ongoing violence in British Somaliland.

East African campaign (World War II)

East African CampaignEast AfricaEast Africa Campaign
In August 1940, during the East African Campaign in World War II, British Somaliland was invaded by Italy.
Forces of the British Middle East Command, including units from the United Kingdom and South Africa, as well as large numbers of colonial troops from British India, Kenya, Somaliland, West Africa, Northern and Southern Rhodesia, Sudan and Nyasaland participated in the campaign.

Dervish movement (Somali)

Dervish StateDervish movementDervish
Beginning in 1899, the British were forced to expend considerable human and military capital to contain a decades-long resistance movement mounted by the Dervish resistance movement.
In August 1898, the Dervish army occupied Burao, an important centre of British Somaliland, giving Muhammad Abdullah Hassan control over the city's watering places.

Operation Appearance

In March 1941, after a six-month Italian occupation, the British Imperial forces recaptured the protectorate during Operation Appearance.
Operation Appearance (16 March 1941) was a British landing in the British Somaliland Protectorate against troops of the Italian Army.

Battle of Tug Argan

Tug Argan
The few British forces that were present attempted to defend the main road to Berbera, but were dislodged from their positions and retreated after losing the Battle of Tug Argan.
The Battle of Tug Argan was fought between forces of the British Empire and Italy from 11 to 15 August 1940 in British Somaliland (later the independent and renamed Somalia).

Dul Madoba

Battle of Dul Madoba
On 9 August 1913, the Somaliland Camel Constabulary suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Dul Madoba at the hands of the Dervishes.
The battle took place on 4 August 1913, between 110 men of the Camel Constabulary of British Somaliland and 300 Dhulbahante tribesmen, commanded by Colonel Richard Corfield, and some 2,750 well-armed Dervish followers of Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, nicknamed by the British as the Mad Mullah.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
It is however recognised as one of the federal states of Somalia.
In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland.

Postage stamps and postal history of British Somaliland

British Somalilanddual-purpose postage and revenue stampsPostage stamps of British Somaliland
* Postage stamps of British Somaliland
Originally mail from British Somaliland used postage stamps of Egypt, then India.

Hargeisa

HargeysaHargaysa
The city later succeeded Berbera as the capital of the British Somaliland protectorate in 1941.

Richard Corfield

At Dul Madoba, his forces killed or wounded 57 members of the 110-man Constabulary unit, including the British commander, Colonel Richard Corfield.
Horace Byatt, the Governor of British Somaliland, offered the command of the new Camel Constabulary to Corfield, who accepted the opportunity to return to the Horn of Africa.

Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia

Italian guerrilla warguerrilla warguerrilla war in Ethiopia
The final remnants of the Italian guerrilla movement discontinued all resistance in British Somaliland by the autumn of 1943.
In the first months of 1942 (because of the August 1940 Italian conquest of British Somaliland), there were also Italian guerrillas in British Somaliland.

Administrative divisions of Somalia

Regiondistrictgobol
It is however recognised as one of the federal states of Somalia.
The British Somaliland protectorate also consisted of two Regions.