British South Africa Company

British South Africa Company (BSAC)Chartered CompanyCharteredsSouth Africa,
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.wikipedia
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Cecil Rhodes

RhodesCecil John RhodesCecil
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.

Royal charter

chartercharter of incorporationchartered
The company received a Royal Charter in 1889 modelled on that of the British East India Company.
Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England (13th Century), the British East India Company (1600), the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (since merged into Standard Chartered), the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O), the British South Africa Company, and some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

Southern Rhodesia

RhodesiaRhodesianColony of Southern Rhodesia
As part of administering Southern Rhodesia until 1923 and Northern Rhodesia until 1924, the BSAC formed what were originally paramilitary forces, but which later included more normal police functions.
The colony was established in 1923, having earlier been administered by the British South Africa Company.

Northern Rhodesia

Northerncolonial times27th (North Rhodesia) Infantry Brigade
As part of administering Southern Rhodesia until 1923 and Northern Rhodesia until 1924, the BSAC formed what were originally paramilitary forces, but which later included more normal police functions.
It was initially administered, as were the two earlier protectorates, by the British South Africa Company (BSAC), a chartered company on behalf of the British Government.

Rudd Concession

concessionconcession for mining rightsmining rights
Rhodes and his associates secured the Rudd Concession from the Ndebele king, Lobengula, which was transferred to the Central Search Association (later renamed United Concession Company), and the Exploring Company was given approximately one-quarter of the shares in it. The British South Africa Company leased mineral rights from the Central Search Association, paying it half the net profits from mineral exploitation.
Despite Lobengula's retrospective attempts to disavow it, it proved the foundation for the royal charter granted by the United Kingdom to Rhodes's British South Africa Company in October 1889, and thereafter for the Pioneer Column's occupation of Mashonaland in 1890, which marked the beginning of white settlement, administration and development in the country that eventually became Rhodesia, named after Rhodes, in 1895.

Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey

Earl GreyThe Earl GreyAlbert Grey
Albert Grey, later Earl Grey had an active role as a liaison between Rhodes in South Africa and government officials in London.
In 1894 Grey inherited the Earldom Grey from his uncle, the third Earl, and thereafter took his place in the House of Lords, while simultaneously undertaking business ventures around the British Empire as Director of the British South Africa Company from 1898, he experienced a steep learning curve during high tension with the Boers.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationin Africa
Rhodes hoped BSAC would promote colonisation and economic exploitation across much of south-central Africa, as part of the "Scramble for Africa".
At the same time, the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes was expanding north from the Limpopo River, sending the Pioneer Column (guided by Frederick Selous) through Matabeleland, and starting a colony in Mashonaland.

Jameson Raid

Dr. Jameson's RaidAftermathfailed raid
Earl Grey was the only London-based director to know about plans for the Jameson Raid, and he, like Rhodes and Beit, did not share this knowledge with the other BSAC directors.
The Jameson Raid (29 December 1895 – 2 January 1896) was a botched raid against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal) carried out by British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops ("police" in the employ of Alfred Beit's and Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company) and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895–96.

Alfred Beit

Beit TrustBeitSir Alfred Beit
Its first directors included the Duke of Abercorn, Rhodes himself and the South African financier Alfred Beit.
Rhodes purportedly was granted concessions by Lobengula, as a result of which Beit founded the British South Africa Company in 1888.

Nathan Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild

Nathan RothschildBaron RothschildLord Rothschild
The BSAC was an amalgamation of a London-based group headed by Lord Gifford and George Cawston and backed financially by Baron Nathan de Rothschild, and Rhodes and his South African associates including Alfred Beit with the resources of the De Beers Syndicate and Gold Fields of South Africa.
Rothschild also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate.

Horace Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar

Horace FarquharSir Horace FarquharThe Lord Farquhar
He and Horace Farquhar, a prominent London banker, completed the first Board.
It was through Fife's influence that Farquhar became a member of the board of the British South Africa Company, despite the presence of a huge conflict of interests as Farquhar was also chairman and a substantial shareholder in the Exploration Company, supported by the Rothschilds which was seeking mining rights in land controlled by the BSAC.

Mashonaland

Mashonaland DistrictMashonaland ProvinceMashonaland West
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.
It was originally one of the regions that the country was divided into following occupation by the Pioneer Column in 1890 and designated the extent of territory under administration of the British South Africa Company as distinct from the remainder of the territory that was directly under the control of the Matabele king, Lobengula, which was named Matabeleland when it was occupied in 1893.

Congo Free State

Congothe CongoAfrican Congo
When the expected wealth of Mashonaland did not materialise and Katanga was acquired by the Congo Free State, the company had little money left for significant development after building railways, particularly in areas north of the Zambezi.
3) Cecil Rhodes, the Prime Minister of the British Cape Colony (part of modern South Africa), was expanding his British South Africa Company's charter lands from the south and threatened to occupy Katanga (southern Congo) by exploiting the "Principle of Effectivity" loophole in the Berlin Treaty. This was supported by Harry Johnston, British Commissioner for central Africa, who was London's representative in the region.

James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn

Duke of AbercornThe Duke of AbercornViscount Hamilton
Its first directors included the Duke of Abercorn, Rhodes himself and the South African financier Alfred Beit.
Abercorn held several positions after acceding to that title, including Groom of the Stool (1886–1891), and Chairman of the British South Africa Company.

Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891

treaty1891 Anglo-Portuguese treatya treaty
However, in negotiations with the Portuguese government, Barotseland was claimed to fall within the British sphere of influence and the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891 allocated the Barotse Kingdom's territory to the British sphere, although the boundary with Angola was not fixed until 1905.
The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891 was an agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Portugal which fixed the boundaries between the British Central Africa Protectorate, (now Malawi) and the territories administered by the British South Africa Company in Mashonaland and Matabeleland (now parts of Zimbabwe) and North-Western Rhodesia (now part of Zambia) and Portuguese Mozambique, and also between the British South Africa Company administered territories of North-Eastern Rhodesia (now in Zambia), and Portuguese Angola.

Pioneer Column

European settlerspioneer
Coryndon, a former secretary of Cecil Rhodes and member of the Pioneer Column, had been proposed by the BSAC, and his appointment was approved by the High Commissioner for South Africa as representing the British government.
The Pioneer Column was a force raised by Cecil Rhodes and his British South Africa Company in 1890 and used in his efforts to annex the territory of Mashonaland, later part of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).

Barotseland

Barotseland BarotseBarotse kingdom
The Lozi of the Barotseland formed a kingdom whose king, Lewanika had begun his rule in 1876, but had been driven from power in 1884.
The Litunga, the Lozi word for the king of Barotseland, had negotiated agreements, first with the British South African Company (BSAC), and then with the British government that ensured the kingdom maintained much of its traditional authority.

North-Eastern Rhodesia

North-Eastern
Before 1911, Northern Rhodesia was administered as two separate territories, North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia.
The protectorate was administered under charter by the British South Africa Company.

Leander Starr Jameson

JamesonSir Leander Starr JamesonDr. Jameson
Rhodes and Jameson made plans to assist, and probably to promote, a Johannesburg rising.
Jameson's status as an inDuna gave him advantages, and in 1888 he successfully exerted his influence with Lobengula to induce the chieftain to grant the concessions to the agents of Rhodes which led to the formation of the British South Africa Company; and when the company proceeded to open up Mashonaland, Jameson abandoned his medical practice and joined the pioneer expedition of 1890.

Matabeleland

Matabele kingdomMatabeleland ProvinceMatebeleland
A protectorate was proclaimed by an Order-in-Council of 9 May 1891, initially covering Mashonaland and later Matabeleland.
Gold was already known to exist, so with the Rudd concession, Rhodes was able, in 1889, to obtain a Royal Charter to form the British South Africa Company.

Robert Coryndon

Robert Thorne CoryndonSir Robert Coryndon Sir '''Robert Coryndon
The first appointee died before taking up his post, but in October 1897, Robert Coryndon reached Barotseland as Resident Commissioner.
Unhappy with office work, after a few months he joined the Bechuanaland Border Police run by the British South Africa Company (BSAC) which Cecil Rhodes had formed in 1889.

Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife

Duke of FifeAlexander Duff, 6th Earl FifeThe Earl Fife
The dukes of Abercorn and of Fife, respectively chairman and vice-chairman were appointed to give the company prestige but they took little part in running the company.
He took part in the founding of the Chartered Company of South Africa and served as one of its vice presidents until the Jameson Raid of 1896.

North-Western Rhodesia

North-WesternNorth West Rhodesia
Before 1911, Northern Rhodesia was administered as two separate territories, North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia.
North-Western Rhodesia, in south central Africa, was a territory administered from 1891 until 1899 under charter by the British South Africa Company.

Nyasaland

Nyasaland ProtectorateBritish NyasalandBritish colonial era
The British South Africa Company also considered acquiring interests in Bechuanaland Protectorate and Nyasaland, which was initially called the British Central Africa Protectorate.
Of this, 2,702,379 million acres, over 1 million hectares, in the north of the protectorate had been acquired by the British South Africa Company for its mineral potential and was never turned into plantations.

Henry Birchenough

Birchenough of MacclesfieldBirchenough ReportJohn Henry Birchenough
From 1925 until his death in 1937 Sir Henry Birchenough, a former Director of the company, served as President.
He became a director of the British South Africa Company in 1905 and soon became prominent in the company, being appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in the 1916 Birthday Honours for services to Rhodesia.