Brittonic languages

BrythonicBrittonicBrythonic languagesBritish CelticBrythonic languageBritishBrittonic languageBrittonic-speakingBritish Celtic languagesBrythonic Celtic
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.wikipedia
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Welsh language

WelshWelsh-languageWelsh-speaking
The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael. During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Cumbric.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg ) is a Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.

Celtic Britons

BritonsBritishBrythonic
The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael.
They spoke the Common Brittonic language, the ancestor to the modern Brittonic languages.

Insular Celtic languages

Insular CelticInsular Celtic languageCeltic
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

Cornish language

CornishOld CornishMiddle Cornish
During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Cumbric.
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.

British Iron Age

Iron AgeBritainIron Age Britain
The Brittonic languages derive from the Common Brittonic language, spoken throughout Great Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period.
The Brythonic languages spoken in Britain at this time, as well as others including the Goidelic and Gaulish languages of neighbouring Ireland and Gaul respectively, certainly belong to the group known as Celtic languages.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
The Brittonic languages derive from the Common Brittonic language, spoken throughout Great Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period. Brittonic languages were probably spoken prior to the Roman invasion at least in the majority of Great Britain south of the rivers Forth and Clyde, though the Isle of Man later had a Goidelic language, Manx.
Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, Britain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.

Breton language

BretonOld BretonMiddle Breton
During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Cumbric.
Breton (, ; brezhoneg or in Morbihan ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family spoken in Brittany.

Brittany

BretonBritannyBretagne
In the 5th and 6th centuries emigrating Britons also took Brittonic speech to the continent, most significantly in Brittany and Britonia.
Scholars such as Léon Fleuriot have suggested a two-wave model of migration from Britain which saw the emergence of an independent Breton people and established the dominance of the Brythonic Breton language in Armorica.

Goidelic languages

GaelicGoidelicGaelic languages
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic. The names "Brittonic" and "Brythonic" are scholarly conventions referring to the Celtic languages of Britain and to the ancestral language they originated from, designated Common Brittonic, in contrast to the Goidelic languages originating in Ireland.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

British Isles

BritainBritishThe British Isles
The name Brittonic derives ultimately from the name Πρεττανική (Prettanike), recorded by Greek authors for the British Isles.
The Insular Celtic languages of the Goidelic sub-group (Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic) and the Brittonic sub-group (Cornish, Welsh and Breton, spoken in north-western France) are the only remaining Celtic languages—the last of their continental relations were extinct before the 7th century.

Celtic languages

CelticCeltic languageQ-Celtic
The names "Brittonic" and "Brythonic" are scholarly conventions referring to the Celtic languages of Britain and to the ancestral language they originated from, designated Common Brittonic, in contrast to the Goidelic languages originating in Ireland. Prior to Jackson's work, "Brittonic" (and "Brythonic") were often used for all the P-Celtic languages, including not just the varieties in Britain but those Continental Celtic languages that similarly experienced the evolution of the Proto-Celtic language element to.
Irish and Scottish form the Goidelic languages, while Welsh and Breton are Brittonic.

Wales

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿WelshWAL
The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael. The displacement of the languages of Brittonic descent was probably complete in all of Britain except Cornwall and Wales and the English counties bordering these areas such as Devon by the 11th century.
In his 1707 work Archaeologia Britannica Edward Lhuyd, keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, noted the similarity between the two Celtic language families: Brythonic or P–Celtic (Breton, Cornish and Welsh); and Goidelic or Q–Celtic (Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic).

Southwestern Brittonic languages

Southwestern BrittonicSouthwesternSouthwestern Brythonic
The Southwestern Brittonic languages are the Brittonic Celtic tongues spoken in South West England and Brittany since the Early Middle Ages.

Cumbric

Cumbric language(Cumbric)Brittonic (Cumbric)
During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Cumbric.
It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Brittonic languages.

Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

Anglo-Saxon invasion of BritainSaxonAnglo-Saxon settlement
Map Gaels Brythons Picts.png.
Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English.

Continental Celtic languages

Continental CelticCelticContinental
Prior to Jackson's work, "Brittonic" (and "Brythonic") were often used for all the P-Celtic languages, including not just the varieties in Britain but those Continental Celtic languages that similarly experienced the evolution of the Proto-Celtic language element to.
It is a Brittonic language closely related to Cornish and Welsh.

Manx language

ManxManx Gaeliclanguage
Brittonic languages were probably spoken prior to the Roman invasion at least in the majority of Great Britain south of the rivers Forth and Clyde, though the Isle of Man later had a Goidelic language, Manx.
The earliest known language of the Isle of Man was a form of Brythonic (like modern Welsh, Cornish and Breton).

Celtic language decline in England

displacedbecame dominant in BritainCeltic language-death in England
The displacement of the languages of Brittonic descent was probably complete in all of Britain except Cornwall and Wales and the English counties bordering these areas such as Devon by the 11th century.
The decline of Celtic languages in England was a process by which speakers of Brittonic languages in what is currently England switched to speaking English.

Proto-Celtic language

Proto-CelticCelticCommon Celtic
Prior to Jackson's work, "Brittonic" (and "Brythonic") were often used for all the P-Celtic languages, including not just the varieties in Britain but those Continental Celtic languages that similarly experienced the evolution of the Proto-Celtic language element to.
In Gaulish and the Brythonic languages, a new * sound has arisen as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European * phoneme.

O'Rahilly's historical model

model of Irish prehistoryGoidelicinfluential model
The theory has been advanced (notably by T. F. O'Rahilly) that part of Ireland spoke a Brittonic language, usually termed Ivernic, before it was displaced by Primitive Irish, although the authors Dillon and Chadwick reject this theory as being implausible.
They spoke a Brittonic language and called themselves Priteni or Pritani.

Armorica

ArmoricArmorican peninsulaAremorica
Between the end of the Roman occupation and the mid 6th century the two dialects began to diverge into recognisably separate varieties, the Western into Cumbric and Welsh and the Southwestern into Cornish and its closely related sister language Breton, which was carried to continental Armorica.
In Breton, which belongs to the Brythonic branch of the Insular Celtic languages, along with Welsh and Cornish, "on [the] sea" is war vor (Welsh ar fôr, "f" being voiced and pronounced like English "v"), but the older form arvor is used to refer to the coastal regions of Brittany, in contrast to argoad (ar "on/at", coad "forest" [Welsh ar goed or coed "trees"]) for the inland regions.

Gaels

GaelicGaelGaelic culture
The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael.
There are two main historical theories concerning the origin and development of the Gaelic languages from a Proto-Celtic root: the North Atlantic-based Insular Celtic hypothesis posits that Goidelic and Brythonic languages have a more recent common ancestor than Continental Celtic languages, while the Q-Celtic and P-Celtic hypothesis posits that Goidelic is more closely related to the Celtiberian language, while Brythonic is closer to the Gaulish language.

Devon

DevonshireDevon, EnglandCounty of Devon
The displacement of the languages of Brittonic descent was probably complete in all of Britain except Cornwall and Wales and the English counties bordering these areas such as Devon by the 11th century.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Dyfnaint, Devnent and Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys."

Common Brittonic

BrittonicBrythonicBritish
The Brittonic languages derive from the Common Brittonic language, spoken throughout Great Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period. The names "Brittonic" and "Brythonic" are scholarly conventions referring to the Celtic languages of Britain and to the ancestral language they originated from, designated Common Brittonic, in contrast to the Goidelic languages originating in Ireland.

Roman Britain

RomanBritainBritannia
The Brittonic languages derive from the Common Brittonic language, spoken throughout Great Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period.
Examination of these languages suggests some 800 Latin words were incorporated into Common Brittonic (see Brittonic languages).