Broadcast syndication

syndicatedsyndicationfirst-run syndicationnationally syndicatedsyndicated televisiontelevision syndicationsyndicated programmingsyndicatorsyndicatesyndicated programs
Broadcasting syndication is the license to broadcast television programs and radio programs by multiple television stations and radio stations, without going through a broadcast network.wikipedia
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Rerun

rerunsre-runrepeat
The three main types of syndication are "first-run syndication", which is programming that is broadcast for the first time as a syndicated show and is made specifically to sell directly into syndication; "off-network syndication", which is the licensing of a program that was originally run on network TV or in some cases, first-run syndication (colloquially called a "rerun"); and "public broadcasting syndication". In off-network syndication, a program that originally aired on network television (or, in some cases, first-run syndication) is licensed for broadcast on another network. Reruns are usually found on stations affiliated with smaller networks like Fox or the CW, especially since these networks broadcast one less hour of prime time network programming than the Big Three television networks and far less network-provided daytime television (only one hour for the CW, none at all for Fox). A show usually enters off-network syndication when it has built up about four seasons' worth or between 80 and 100 episodes, though for some genres the number could be as low as 65. Successful shows in syndication can cover production costs and make a profit, even if the first run of the show was not profitable.
There are two types of reruns – those that occur during a hiatus, and those that occur when a program is syndicated.

100 episodes

100th episodeenough episodes100 total episodes
In off-network syndication, a program that originally aired on network television (or, in some cases, first-run syndication) is licensed for broadcast on another network. Reruns are usually found on stations affiliated with smaller networks like Fox or the CW, especially since these networks broadcast one less hour of prime time network programming than the Big Three television networks and far less network-provided daytime television (only one hour for the CW, none at all for Fox). A show usually enters off-network syndication when it has built up about four seasons' worth or between 80 and 100 episodes, though for some genres the number could be as low as 65. Successful shows in syndication can cover production costs and make a profit, even if the first run of the show was not profitable.
In the U.S. television industry, 100 episodes is the traditional threshold for a television series to become viable for syndication.

PBS

Public Broadcasting Servicepublic televisionPBS television
This type of syndication has arisen in the U.S. as a parallel service to member stations of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and the handful of independent public broadcasting stations. This form of syndication more closely resembles the news agency model, where nominally competing networks share resources and rebroadcast each other's programs. For example, National Public Radio (NPR) stations commonly air the Public Radio Exchange's This American Life, which may contain stories produced by NPR journalists.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

Independent station (North America)

independent stationIndependentindependent stations
Some stations were not affiliated with any network, operating as independent stations.
An independent station is a type of television station broadcasting in the United States or Canada that is not affiliated with any broadcast television network; most commonly, these stations carry a mix of syndicated, brokered and in some cases, local programming to fill time periods when network programs typically would air.

Ziv Television Programs

ZivZiv TelevisionZiv Production
Ziv Television Programs, Inc., after establishing itself as a major radio syndicator, was the first major first-run television syndicator, creating several long-lived series in the 1950s and selling them directly to regional sponsors, who in turn sold the shows to local stations.
Ziv Television Programs, Inc. was an American production company that specialized in productions for first-run television syndication in the 1950s.

Death Valley Days

Call of the West
Some stalwart series continued, including Death Valley Days; other ambitious projects were also to flourish, however briefly, such as The Play of the Week (1959–1961), produced by David Susskind (of the syndicated talk show Open End and also producer of such network fare as NYPD).
Created in 1930 by Ruth Woodman, the program was broadcast on radio until 1945 and continued from 1952 to 1970 as a syndicated television series, with reruns (updated with new narrations) continuing through August 1, 1975.

Ripcord (TV series)

RipcordRipcord'' (TV series)
Among the most widely seen Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt, I Led Three Lives, Highway Patrol and Ripcord.
Ripcord is an American syndicated television series that ran for a total of 76 episodes from 1961 to 1963 about the exploits of a skydiving operation of its namesake.

Mister Ed

Mr. EdEd the HorseMr Ed
Some first-run syndicated series were picked up by networks in the 1950s and early 1960s, such as the Adventures of Superman and Mr. Ed.
Mister Ed is an American television sitcom produced by Filmways which originally aired in syndication from January 5 to July 2, 1961, and then on CBS from October 1, 1961, to February 6, 1966.

Sea Hunt

ARGONAUTSea Hunt (1961), Season 4, Episode's 29 & 37Sea Hunt ?
Among the most widely seen Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt, I Led Three Lives, Highway Patrol and Ripcord.
Sea Hunt is an American action adventure television series that aired in syndication from 1958 to 1961 and was popular in syndication for decades afterwards.

Highway Patrol (U.S. TV series)

Highway PatrolHighway Patrol (TV series)Highway Patrol'' (U.S. TV series)
Among the most widely seen Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt, I Led Three Lives, Highway Patrol and Ripcord.
Highway Patrol is a 156-episode action crime drama series produced for syndication from 1955 to 1959.

I Led 3 Lives

I Led Three LivesTV show
Among the most widely seen Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt, I Led Three Lives, Highway Patrol and Ripcord.
I Led 3 Lives (also known as I Led Three Lives) is an American drama series syndicated by Ziv Television Programs from October 1, 1953, to January 1, 1956.

Adventures of Superman (TV series)

Adventures of SupermanThe Adventures of SupermanSuperman
Some first-run syndicated series were picked up by networks in the 1950s and early 1960s, such as the Adventures of Superman and Mr. Ed.
The show, which was produced for first-run television syndication rather than a network, has disputed first and last air dates, but they are generally accepted as September 19, 1952, and April 28, 1958.

Ramar of the Jungle

Original juvenile adventure series included Captain Gallant of the Foreign Legion, Cowboy G-Men, and Ramar of the Jungle.
Ramar of the Jungle was a syndicated American television series (1952–1954) that starred Jon Hall as Dr. Tom Reynolds (the titular “ramar,” an African title for a white medicine man) and Ray Montgomery as his associate, Professor Howard Ogden.

This American Life

the radio program of the same nameThis American Life – Live!Your Radio Playhouse
This type of syndication has arisen in the U.S. as a parallel service to member stations of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and the handful of independent public broadcasting stations. This form of syndication more closely resembles the news agency model, where nominally competing networks share resources and rebroadcast each other's programs. For example, National Public Radio (NPR) stations commonly air the Public Radio Exchange's This American Life, which may contain stories produced by NPR journalists.
National syndication began in June 1996 when Public Radio International formed a distribution partnership with the program.

Television network

networknetwork televisiontelevision
Syndication differs from licensing the show to a television network.
The Big Three provide a significant amount of programs to each of their affiliates, including newscasts, prime time, daytime and sports programming, but still reserve periods during each day where their affiliate can air local programming, such as local news or syndicated programs.

PM Magazine

Evening MagazineEvening Magazine/PM Magazine
FCC rulings in 1971 curtailed the U.S. networks' ability to schedule programming in what has become known as the "early fringe", notably the 7–8 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time) hour of "prime time", with the stated hope that this might encourage more local programming of social and cultural relevance to communities (off-network syndicated repeats were also banned); some projects of this sort came to fruition, though usually relatively commercial and slick ones such as Group W's Evening Magazine/PM Magazine franchise, and such pre-existing national projects as the brief commercial-television run of William F. Buckley, Jr.'s interview/debate series Firing Line.
It was syndicated to stations throughout the United States.

Merv Griffin

GriffinGriffin, MervMerv Griffin Ranch
Until about 1980, most syndicated series were distributed to stations either on 16mm film prints (off-network reruns, feature films, and cartoons) or videotape (topical series such as the talk shows of Mike Douglas and Merv Griffin, and variety and quiz shows.)
Griffin started as a singer on radio at age 19, appearing on San Francisco Sketchbook, a nationally syndicated program based at KFRC.

How to Marry a Millionaire (TV series)

How to Marry a Millionaireof the same name
One syndication company, National Telefilm Associates, attempted to create a "film network" of stations showing its lineup of first-run series, which included syndicated programs such as Police Call (1955), How to Marry a Millionaire (1957-1959), The Passerby, Man Without a Gun (1957-1959), and This is Alice (1958).
How to Marry a Millionaire is an American sitcom that aired in syndication and on the

The Abbott and Costello Show

their early '50s television show
Among other syndicated series of the 1950s were MCA's The Abbott and Costello Show (vaudeville-style comedy) and Guild Films' Liberace (musical variety) and Life With Elizabeth, a domestic situation comedy that introduced Betty White to a national audience.
The program premiered in syndication in the fall of 1952 and ran two seasons, to the spring of 1954.

Joe Palooka

comic stripGentleman Joe PalookaJoe Palooka in Humphrey Takes a Chance
In addition to the Adventures of Superman, many other series were based on comic strips and aimed at the juvenile audience, including Flash Gordon, Dick Tracy, Sheena, Queen of the Jungle, and Joe Palooka.
The strip was adapted to a short-lived 15-minute CBS radio series, 12 feature-length films (chiefly from Monogram Pictures), nine Vitaphone film shorts, a 1954 syndicated television series (The Joe Palooka Story), comic books and merchandise, including a 1940s board game, a 1947 New Haven Clock & Watch Company wristwatch, a 1948 metal lunchbox featuring depictions of Joe, Humphrey and Little Max, and a 1946 Wheaties cereal box cut-out mask.

Westinghouse Broadcasting

Group WGroup W ProductionsWestinghouse
FCC rulings in 1971 curtailed the U.S. networks' ability to schedule programming in what has become known as the "early fringe", notably the 7–8 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time) hour of "prime time", with the stated hope that this might encourage more local programming of social and cultural relevance to communities (off-network syndicated repeats were also banned); some projects of this sort came to fruition, though usually relatively commercial and slick ones such as Group W's Evening Magazine/PM Magazine franchise, and such pre-existing national projects as the brief commercial-television run of William F. Buckley, Jr.'s interview/debate series Firing Line.
It owned several radio and television stations across the United States and distributed television shows for syndication.

Soul Train

4th Lady of Soul AwardsLady of Soul AwardsOld Train
These included the dance-music show Soul Train, and 20th Century Fox's That's Hollywood, a television variation on the popular That's Entertainment! theatrically released collections of film clips from the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer library.
Soul Train was an American music-dance television program which aired in syndication from October 2, 1971 to March 27, 2006.

Cowboy G-Men

Original juvenile adventure series included Captain Gallant of the Foreign Legion, Cowboy G-Men, and Ramar of the Jungle.
Cowboy G-Men is an American Western series that aired in syndication from September 1952 to June 1953, for a total of thirty-nine episodes.

National Telefilm Associates

NBC FilmsNTAN. T. A. Pictures Inc./Republic Pictures
One syndication company, National Telefilm Associates, attempted to create a "film network" of stations showing its lineup of first-run series, which included syndicated programs such as Police Call (1955), How to Marry a Millionaire (1957-1959), The Passerby, Man Without a Gun (1957-1959), and This is Alice (1958).
In October 1956, NTA launched the NTA Film Network, a syndication service which distributed both film and live programs to television stations not affiliated with NBC, CBS, or ABC (DuMont had recently gone out of business).

Man Without a Gun

One syndication company, National Telefilm Associates, attempted to create a "film network" of stations showing its lineup of first-run series, which included syndicated programs such as Police Call (1955), How to Marry a Millionaire (1957-1959), The Passerby, Man Without a Gun (1957-1959), and This is Alice (1958).
Man Without a Gun is an American western television series produced by 20th Century Fox Television and presented on the NTA Film Network and in first-run syndication in the United States from 1957 to 1959.