Broca's area

BrocaBroca’s areaBroca's regionareasBroca areaBroca's coilBroca's patient TanBroca's syndromeBrocas areaBroca’s
Broca's area, or the Broca area (, also, ), is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the brain with functions linked to speech production.wikipedia
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Paul Broca

BrocaPierre Paul BrocaBroca (1878)
Language processing has been linked to Broca's area since Pierre Paul Broca reported impairments in two patients.
He is best known for his research on Broca's area, a region of the frontal lobe that is named after him.

Expressive aphasia

Broca's aphasiamotor aphasianon-fluent aphasia
Since then, the approximate region he identified has become known as Broca's area, and the deficit in language production as Broca's aphasia, also called expressive aphasia.
It is caused by acquired damage to the Anterior regions of the brain, such as Broca's area.

Language processing in the brain

language processingReceptive languagereceptive
Language processing has been linked to Broca's area since Pierre Paul Broca reported impairments in two patients.
This region then projects to a word production center (Broca's area) that is located in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
Broca's area, or the Broca area (, also, ), is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the brain with functions linked to speech production.
It contains the motor cortex, which is involved in planning and coordinating movement; the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for higher-level cognitive functioning; and Broca’s area, which is essential for language production.

Brodmann area

Brodmann areasBrodmann's areaBrodmann
Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 of the dominant hemisphere.
Higher order functions of the association cortical areas are also consistently localized to the same Brodmann areas by neurophysiological, functional imaging, and other methods (e.g., the consistent localization of Broca's speech and language area to the left Brodmann areas 44 and 45).

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
However, slow destruction of the Broca's area by brain tumors can leave speech relatively intact, suggesting its functions can shift to nearby areas in the brain.

Brodmann area 45

BA4545triangular area 45
Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 of the dominant hemisphere.
The left-hemisphere Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 make up Broca's area, a region that is active in semantic tasks, such as semantic decision tasks (determining whether a word represents an abstract or a concrete entity) and generation tasks (generating a verb associated with a noun).

Aphasia

aphasicdysphasiaaphasics
Since then, the approximate region he identified has become known as Broca's area, and the deficit in language production as Broca's aphasia, also called expressive aphasia.

Inferior frontal gyrus

pars opercularisinferior frontalinferior frontal cortex
Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 of the dominant hemisphere. They had lost the ability to speak after injury to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis) (BA45) of the brain.
The inferior frontal gyrus is the location of Broca's area involved in language processing and speech production.

Brodmann area 44

44BA44Areas 44
Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 of the dominant hemisphere.
Together with left-hemisphere BA 45, the left hemisphere BA 44 comprises Broca's area, a region involved in semantic tasks.

Korbinian Brodmann

BrodmannBrodmann (1909)
Broca's area is now typically defined in terms of the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, represented in Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map as Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 of the dominant hemisphere.

Stuttering

stutterstammerstammering
A speech disorder known as stuttering is seen to be associated with underactivity in Broca's area.
Studies utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) have found during tasks that invoke disfluent speech, people who stutter show hypoactivity in cortical areas associated with language processing, such as Broca's area, but hyperactivity in areas associated with motor function.

Orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus

orbital partpars orbitalis
Functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown language processing to also involve the third part of the inferior frontal gyrus the pars orbitalis, as well as the ventral part of BA6 and these are now often included in a larger area called Broca's region.
* Broca's region

Conduction aphasia

aphasia, conduction
The classical explanation for conduction aphasia is that of a disconnection between the brain areas responsible for speech comprehension (Wernicke's area) and speech production (Broca's area), due specifically to damage to the arcuate fasciculus, a deep white matter tract.

Cognitive neuropsychology

researchcognitive neuropsychologistneuropsychology of memory
Cognitive science - to be specific, cognitive neuropsychology - are branches of neuroscience that also make extensive use of the deficit-lesion method.
From this he concluded that the function of speech was probably localized in the inferior frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere of the brain, an area now known as Broca's area.

Global aphasia

The lesion is caused by an occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery and is associated with damage to Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and insular regions which are associated with aspects of language.

Wernicke's area

WernickeWernicke areaWernickes area
Wernicke's area ( or ; ), also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).

Aphasiology

The examination of lesion data in order to deduce which brain areas are essential in the normal functioning of certain aspects of cognition is called the deficit-lesion method; this method is especially important in the branch of neuroscience known as aphasiology.
Not surprisingly, this region has come to be known as "Broca's area".

Speech repetition

Nonword Repetitionword repetitionphonetically
Other symptoms that may be present include problems with fluency, articulation, word-finding, word repetition, and producing and comprehending complex grammatical sentences, both orally and in writing.
Carl Wernicke identified a pathway between the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (a cerebral cortex region sometimes called the Wernicke's area) as a centre of the sound "images" of speech and its syllables that connected through the arcuate fasciculus with part of the inferior frontal gyrus (sometimes called the Broca's area) responsible for their articulation.

Anomic aphasia

anomiaamnesic aphasiadysnomia
Broca's area, the speech production center in the brain, was linked to being the source for speech execution problems, with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), now commonly used to study anomic patients.

Mixed transcortical aphasia

In this rare type of aphasia, Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the arcuate fasciculus are intact but the watershed region around them is damaged.

Transcortical motor aphasia

The damage leaves the major language networks, Broca's and Wernicke’ s areas and the arcuate fasiculus, unaffected.

Transcortical sensory aphasia

transcortical
One function of the arcuate fasciculus is the connection between Wernicke’s and Broca’s area.

Origin of language

evolution of languageOrigins of languagelanguage
The pursuit of a satisfying theory that addresses the origin of language in humans has led to the consideration of a number of evolutionary "models".
In humans, functional MRI studies have reported finding areas homologous to the monkey mirror neuron system in the inferior frontal cortex, close to Broca's area, one of the language regions of the brain.

Dissociation (neuropsychology)

dissociationdouble dissociationdissociable
In the classical sense, expressive aphasia is the result of injury to Broca's area; it is often the case that lesions in specific brain areas cause specific, dissociable symptoms, although case studies show there is not always a one-to-one mapping between lesion location and aphasic symptoms.
Post-mortems revealed lesions in separate areas of the brain in each case (now referred to as Broca's area and Wernicke's area respectively).