Bromine

BrbrominatedbromoBr 2 Br 3 bromine gasb'''rominatedBr 4 Br 5 Br −
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.wikipedia
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Chlorine

Clchlorine gaschlorinated
Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine.
The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them.

Halogen

halogensgroup 1717
It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. Bromine is the third halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

Carl Jacob Löwig

LöwigC. LöwigCarl Löwig
Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig (in 1825) and Antoine Jérôme Balard (in 1826), its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell.
Carl Jacob Löwig (17 March 1803 – 27 March 1890) was a German chemist and discovered bromine independently of Antoine Jérôme Balard.

Liquid

liquidsliquid phaseliquid state
It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas.
Only two elements are liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure: mercury and bromine.

Iodine

II 2 iodinated
Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine.
Iodine is the fourth halogen, being a member of group 17 in the periodic table, below fluorine, chlorine, and bromine; it is the heaviest stable member of its group (the scarce and fugitive fifth halogen, the radioactive astatine, is not well-studied due to its expense and inaccessibility in large quantities, but appears to show various unusual properties due to relativistic effects).

Bromism

bromide poisoningbromide intoxicationbromine poisoning
Large amounts of bromide salts are toxic from the action of soluble bromide ion, causing bromism.
Bromism is the syndrome which results from the long-term consumption of bromine, usually through bromide-based sedatives such as potassium bromide and lithium bromide.

Antoine Jérôme Balard

BalardAntoine BalardAntoine Jerome Balard
Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig (in 1825) and Antoine Jérôme Balard (in 1826), its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell.
Antoine Jérôme Balard (1802–1876) was a French chemist and one of the discoverers of bromine.

Potassium bromide

KBrbromidebromide of potassium
Potassium bromide and sodium bromide were used as anticonvulsants and sedatives in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but were gradually superseded by chloral hydrate and then by the barbiturates.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.

Silver halide

silver saltssilver-halideAgX
In 1840, bromine was discovered to have some advantages over the previously used iodine vapor to create the light sensitive silver halide layer in daguerreotypy.
In particular, bromine, chlorine, iodine and fluorine may each combine with silver to produce silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl), silver iodide (AgI), and three forms of silver fluoride, respectively.

Daguerreotype

daguerrotypedaguerreotypistdaguerreotypes
Apart from some minor medical applications, the first commercial use was the daguerreotype.
The discovery and commercial availability of the halides: iodine, bromine and chlorine a few years earlier (iodine was discovered by Courtois in 1811, bromine by Löwig in 1825 and Balard in 1826 independently, and chlorine by Scheele in 1774) meant that silver photographic processes that rely on the reduction of silver iodide, silver bromide and silver chloride to metallic silver became feasible.

Bromide

Br − Brbromide ion
Conversely, the bromide ion is a weaker reducing agent than iodide, but a stronger one than chloride.
This is a bromine atom with an ionic charge of −1 (Br − ); for example, in caesium bromide, caesium cations (Cs + ) are electrically attracted to bromide anions (Br − ) to form the electrically neutral ionic compound CsBr.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Only bromine and mercury are liquids at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and normal atmospheric pressure; caesium and gallium are solids at that temperature, but melt at 28.4 °C (83.2 °F) and 29.8 °C (85.6 °F), respectively.

Nonmetal

non-metalReactive nonmetalnon-metals
Bromine is the third halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table.
The elements generally classified as nonmetals include one element in group 1 (hydrogen); one in group 14 (carbon); two in group 15 (nitrogen and phosphorus); three in group 16 (oxygen, sulfur and selenium); most of group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine); and all of group 18 (with the possible exception of oganesson).

Organobromine compound

alkyl bromideorganobromideorganobromine
At high temperatures, organobromine compounds readily dissociate to yield free bromine atoms, a process that stops free radical chemical chain reactions.
Organobromine compounds, also called organobromides, are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine.

Xylyl bromide

In the early years of the First World War, bromine compounds such as xylyl bromide were used as poison gas.
Xylyl bromide, also known as methylbenzyl bromide or T-stoff ("Substance-T"), is any member or a mixture of organic chemical compounds with the molecular formula C 6 H 4 (CH 3 )(CH 2 Br).

Platinum

Ptcompounds of platinumdouble Platinum
It is also attacked by chlorine, bromine, iodine, and sulfur.

Sodium bromide

NaBrS
Potassium bromide and sodium bromide were used as anticonvulsants and sedatives in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but were gradually superseded by chloral hydrate and then by the barbiturates.
Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine.

Electronegativity

electronegativeelectropositiveelectronegativities
Corresponding to periodic trends, it is intermediate in electronegativity between chlorine and iodine (F: 3.98, Cl: 3.16, Br: 2.96, I: 2.66), and is less reactive than chlorine and more reactive than iodine.
Hence, the difference in Pauling electronegativity between hydrogen and bromine is 0.73 (dissociation energies: H–Br, 3.79 eV; H–H, 4.52 eV; Br–Br 2.00 eV)

Interhalogen

interhalogen compoundAtClfluorides of iodine
The halogens form many binary, diamagnetic interhalogen compounds with stoichiometries XY, XY 3, XY 5, and XY 7 (where X is heavier than Y), and bromine is no exception.
An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.

Bromine monochloride

Bromine chlorideBrClchlorobromides
Bromine monochloride (BrCl), a red-brown gas, quite readily dissociates reversibly into bromine and chlorine at room temperature and thus also cannot be obtained pure, though it can be made by the reversible direct reaction of its elements in the gas phase or in carbon tetrachloride.
Bromine monochloride, also called bromine(I) chloride, bromochloride, and bromine chloride, is an interhalogen inorganic compound with chemical formula BrCl.

Atomic radius

atomic radiiatomicatomic size
It is intermediate in atomic radius between chlorine and iodine, and this leads to many of its atomic properties being similarly intermediate in value between chlorine and iodine, such as first ionisation energy, electron affinity, enthalpy of dissociation of the X 2 molecule (X = Cl, Br, I), ionic radius, and X–X bond length.
In this case, it is the poor shielding capacity of the 3d-electrons which affects the atomic radii and chemistries of the elements immediately following the first row of the transition metals, from gallium (Z = 31) to bromine (Z = 35).

Cyanogen bromide

BrCNBromine cyanide
Apart from these, some pseudohalides are also known, such as cyanogen bromide (BrCN), bromine thiocyanate (BrSCN), and bromine azide (BrN 3 ).
The carbon atom in cyanogen bromide is bonded to bromine by a single bond and to nitrogen by a triple bond (i.e. Br–C≡N).

Bromine pentafluoride

BrF 5 Br
Bromine pentafluoride (BrF 5 ) was first synthesised in 1930.
Bromine pentafluoride, BrF 5, is an interhalogen compound and a fluoride of bromine.

Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner

Johann DöbereinerDobereiner, Johann Wolfgangwere noticed well before
These similarities led to chlorine, bromine, and iodine together being classified as one of the original triads of Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, whose work foreshadowed the periodic law for chemical elements.
A similar pattern was found with calcium, strontium, and barium; with sulfur, selenium, tellurium; and with chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

Bromine oxide

Bromine oxides are not as well-characterised as chlorine oxides or iodine oxides, as they are all fairly unstable: it was once thought that they could not exist at all.
Bromine can form several different unstable oxides: