Bronze

bronzesbronzewaresilicon bronzemanganese bronzeCommercial bronzeBronze castingbronze wareB8 or B20Bronze AgeBronze forging
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.wikipedia
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Copper

CuCu 2+ cupric
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Examples of alloys are steel, solder, brass, pewter, duralumin, bronze and amalgams.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1/8 tin and 7/8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC.

Bronze Age

Late Bronze AgeEarly Bronze AgeBronze
The archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

Brass

brasswaremanganese brassCartridge brass
Because historical pieces were often made of brasses (copper and zinc) and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects increasingly use the generalized term "copper alloy" instead.
It is similar to bronze, another alloy containing copper, with tin included instead of zinc ; both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, lead, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and silicon.

List of copper alloys

copper alloycopper-alloycopper alloys
Because historical pieces were often made of brasses (copper and zinc) and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects increasingly use the generalized term "copper alloy" instead.
The best known traditional types are bronze, where tin is a significant addition, and brass, using zinc instead.

Iron Age

Early Iron AgeIronLate Iron Age
The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more widely used than it is in modern times.
It is defined by archaeological convention, and the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture; rather, the "Iron Age" begins locally when the production of iron or steel has been brought to the point where iron tools and weapons superior to their bronze equivalents become widespread.

Chalcolithic

Copper AgeEneolithicChalcolithic period
Bronze tools, weapons, armor, and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper ("Chalcolithic") predecessors.
Hence it was the period before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed bronze (a harder and stronger metal).

Tin sources and trade in ancient times

ancient tin tradetin tradingancient history
Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures.
Tin is an essential metal in the creation of tin bronzes, and its acquisition was an important part of ancient cultures from the Bronze Age onward.

Arsenic

AsAs 2 Arsenate
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. Initially, bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from naturally or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC.
During the Bronze Age, arsenic was often included in bronze, which made the alloy harder (so-called "arsenical bronze").

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Other widely used zinc alloys include nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminium solder, and commercial bronze.

Nickel

NiNi 2+ Nickel (Ni)
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Bronzes from what is now Syria have been found to contain as much as 2% nickel.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Egypt, Susa (Iran) and some ancient sites in China, Luristan (Iran) and Mesopotamia (Iraq).
When Tuthmosis III died in 1425 BC, Egypt had an empire extending from Niya in north west Syria to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in Nubia, cementing loyalties and opening access to critical imports such as bronze and wood.

Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège

baptismal font in Liègebaptismal fontbrass font of 1108–1117 now in Liège
The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, and the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass.
The baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is a Romanesque brass or bronze baptismal font made between 1107 and 1118 now in St Bartholomew's Church, Liège in Liège, Belgium.

Aluminium bronze

aluminum bronzealuminium-bronzeAluminum-bronze
Other bronze alloys include aluminium bronze, phosphor bronze, manganese bronze, bell metal, arsenical bronze, speculum metal and cymbal alloys.
Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper, in contrast to standard bronze (copper and tin) or brass (copper and zinc).

Blade

bladescutting edgeknife blade
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs, turbines and blades.
Historically, humans have made blades from flaking stones such as flint or obsidian, and from various metal such as copper, bronze and iron.

Bismuth bronze

bronze alloy
Bismuth bronze is a bronze alloy with a composition of 52% copper, 30% nickel, 12% zinc, 5% lead, and 1% bismuth.
This bronze alloy is very corrosion-resistant, a property which makes it suitable for use in environments such as the ocean.

Arsenical bronze

arsenic bronzearsenic-copper alloycopper/arsenic bronzes
Other bronze alloys include aluminium bronze, phosphor bronze, manganese bronze, bell metal, arsenical bronze, speculum metal and cymbal alloys. Initially, bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from naturally or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC.
Arsenical bronze is an alloy in which arsenic, as opposed to or in addition to tin or other constituent metals, is added to copper to make bronze.

Spring (device)

springspringsspring-loaded
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs, turbines and blades.
Ctesibius of Alexandria developed a method for making bronze with spring-like characteristics by producing an alloy of bronze with an increased proportion of tin, and then hardening it by hammering after it was cast.

Benin Bronzes

Beninbrass plaquesBenin bronze
The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, and the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass.
While the collection is known as the Benin Bronzes, like most West African "bronzes" the pieces are mostly made of brass of variable composition.

Bronze sculpture

bronzebronze statuebronzes
It is also widely used for casting bronze sculptures.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".

Gloucester Candlestick

Historical "bronzes" are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was on hand; the metal of the 12th-century English Gloucester Candlestick is bronze containing a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver – between 22.5% in the base and 5.76% in the pan below the candle.
The metal is bronze in an unusual mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, and arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver - between 22.5% in the base and 5.76% in the pan below the candle.

Cymbal alloys

cymbal alloyalloysB20 alloy
Other bronze alloys include aluminium bronze, phosphor bronze, manganese bronze, bell metal, arsenical bronze, speculum metal and cymbal alloys.
These are: bell bronze, malleable bronze, brass, and nickel silver.

Bronze disease

corrosion
However, if copper chlorides are formed, a corrosion-mode called "bronze disease" will eventually completely destroy it.
Bronze disease is the irreversible and nearly inexorable corrosion process occurring when chlorides come into contact with bronze or other copper-bearing alloys.

Oilite

Oilite bronzeSAE 841SAE 863
It can be filled with oil to make the proprietary Oilite and similar material for bearings.
Oilite is a porous bronze or iron alloy commonly impregnated with an oil lubricant and used in bearings.