Brooch

broochesfibulaepinbottonierafibula
A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.wikipedia
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Jewellery

jewelryjewelledjeweler
A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed. Brooches are frequently decorated with enamel or with gemstones and may be solely for ornament or serve a practical function as a clothes fastener.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English; see spelling differences) consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Brooches were known as fibula (plural fibulae) prior to the Middle Ages.
There are survivals from the large brooches in fibula or penannular form that were a key piece of personal adornment for elites, including the Irish Tara Brooch.

Migration Period art

Migration PeriodGermanicGermanic tradition
The distinctive metalwork that was created by the Germanic peoples from the fourth through the eighth centuries belong to the art movement known as Migration period art.
Perhaps the most famous examples are found in the fourth-century Pietroasele treasure (Romania), which includes a great gold eagle brooch ( picture).

Celtic brooch

penannular broochpseudo-penannularpenannular brooches
The most common brooch forms during this period were the bow, the plate and in smaller quantities, the penannular brooch.
The Celtic brooch, more properly called the penannular brooch, and its closely related type, the pseudo-penannular brooch, are types of brooch clothes fasteners, often rather large; penannular means formed as an incomplete ring.

Celts

CelticCeltCeltic people
In Europe, Celtic craftsmen were creating fibulae decorated in red enamel and coral inlay, as early as 400 BC.
Brooches and armlets were used, but the most famous item of jewellery was the torc, a neck collar of metal, sometimes gold.

Vikings

VikingNorseDanes
During the early medieval period, Scandinavian craftsmen created intricately carved brooches with their signature animal style ornamentation.
Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes (often silk) and well crafted jewellery like brooches, belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Filigree

filigreedfilagreefiligrana
The brooches of this era display techniques from Roman art: repoussé, filigree, granulation, enamelling, openwork and inlay, but it is inlay that the Migration period artists are famous for.
Brooches, crosses, earrings, buttons and other personal ornaments of modern filigree are generally surrounded and subdivided by bands of square or flat metal, giving consistency to the filling up, which would not otherwise keep its proper shape.

Medieval art

medievalmedieval paintingMiddle Ages
Extremely detailed geometric, interlace, and stylised animal decoration, with forms derived from secular metalwork like brooches, spread boldly across manuscripts, usually gospel books like the Book of Kells, with whole carpet pages devoted to such designs, and the development of the large decorated and historiated initial.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold or some other material.

Silver

Agsilver orenative silver
It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold or some other material.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold or some other material.

Gemstone

gemgemsgemstones
Brooches are frequently decorated with enamel or with gemstones and may be solely for ornament or serve a practical function as a clothes fastener.

Bronze Age

Late Bronze AgeEarly Bronze AgeBronze
The earliest known brooches are from the Bronze Age.

Fibula (brooch)

fibulafibulaefibulas
Brooches were known as fibula (plural fibulae) prior to the Middle Ages. Many of the ancient European brooches found in archaeology are usually referred to by the Latin term fibula.

Iron Age

Early Iron AgeIronLate Iron Age
In Europe, during the Iron Age, metalworking technology had advanced dramatically.

Casting

castcastscasting process
The newer techniques of casting, metal bar-twisting and wire making were the basis for many new objects, including the fibula.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
The earliest manufacture of brooches in Great Britain was during the period from 600 to 150 BC.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
The distinctive metalwork that was created by the Germanic peoples from the fourth through the eighth centuries belong to the art movement known as Migration period art. During the 5th and 6th centuries, five Germanic tribes migrated to and occupied four different areas of Europe and England after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Brooches dating from this period were developed from a combination of Late Roman and new Germanic art forms, designs and technology.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
During the 5th and 6th centuries, five Germanic tribes migrated to and occupied four different areas of Europe and England after the collapse of the Roman Empire.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
During the 5th and 6th centuries, five Germanic tribes migrated to and occupied four different areas of Europe and England after the collapse of the Roman Empire.

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

decline of the Roman Empirefall of Romefall of the Roman Empire
During the 5th and 6th centuries, five Germanic tribes migrated to and occupied four different areas of Europe and England after the collapse of the Roman Empire.

Barbarian

barbariansbarbarismbarbaric
Because the tribes were closely linked by their origins, and their jewellery techniques were strikingly similar, the work of these people was first referred to as Barbarian art.

Late antiquity

Late Antiqueancientantiquity
Brooches dating from this period were developed from a combination of Late Roman and new Germanic art forms, designs and technology.

Repoussé and chasing

repousséchasedchasing
The brooches of this era display techniques from Roman art: repoussé, filigree, granulation, enamelling, openwork and inlay, but it is inlay that the Migration period artists are famous for.

Granulation (jewellery)

granulationgranulatedgranulated work
The brooches of this era display techniques from Roman art: repoussé, filigree, granulation, enamelling, openwork and inlay, but it is inlay that the Migration period artists are famous for.