The Buddhist Nalanda university and monastery was a major center of learning in India from the 5th century CE until the 12th century.
Representatives from the three major modern Buddhist traditions, at the World Fellowship of Buddhists, 27th General Conference, 2014.
Gautama Buddha surrounded by followers, from an 18th-century Burmese watercolour
Map showing major Buddhist divisions
Indian Emperor Aśoka and the elder Moggaliputta-Tissa, who is seen as a key thinker of the Vibhajyavāda tradition (and thus, of Theravada).
Districtwise Buddhist population percentage, India census 2011. India's West-centre area Maharashtra shows Navayana Buddhist population
Buddhaghosa (c. 5th century), the most important Abhidharma scholar of Theravāda Buddhism, presenting three copies of the Visuddhimagga.
Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center.
Nagarjuna, protected by the Nagas snake spirits who are said to be the guardians of the Prajnaparamita sutras.
Map of the major geographical centers of major Buddhist schools in South Asia, at around the time of Xuanzang's visit in the seventh century. * Red: non-Pudgalavāda Sarvāstivāda school * Orange: non-Dharmaguptaka Vibhajyavāda schools * Yellow: Mahāsāṃghika * Green: Pudgalavāda (Green) * Gray: Dharmaguptaka Note the red and grey schools already gave some original ideas of Mahayana Buddhism and the Sri Lankan section (see Tamrashatiya) of the orange school is the origin of modern Theravada Buddhism.
Vasubandhu wrote in defense of Vijñapti-matra (appearance only) as well as writing a massive work on Abhidharma, the Abhidharmakosa.
The Tipitaka (Pali Canon), in a Thai Style book case. The Pali Tipitaka is the doctrinal foundation of all major Theravāda sects today
Dignāga in formal debating stance
Nagarjuna, one of the most influential thinkers of Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism
Abhayākaragupta, one of "the last great masters" of Indian Buddhism (Kapstein).
Indian Buddhist Mahasiddhas, 18th century, Boston MFA.
Tsongkapa, 15th-century painting, Rubin Museum of Art
B. R. Ambedkar delivering speech during conversion, Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur, 14 October 1956
Gorampa Sonam Senge
Taixu, the founder of Chinese Humanistic Buddhism
Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso.
Painting of Śramaṇa Zhiyi of the Tiantai school.
A 3D rendering of Indra's net.
The Garbhadhatu mandala. The center square represents the young stage of Vairocana Buddha.
A portrait of Gendün Chöphel in India, 1936.
Kitarō Nishida, professor of philosophy at Kyoto University and founder of the Kyoto School.

Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the parinirvana (i.e. death) of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.

- Buddhist philosophy

The classification and nature of various doctrinal, philosophical or cultural facets of the schools of Buddhism is vague and has been interpreted in many different ways, often due to the sheer number (perhaps thousands) of different sects, subsects, movements, etc. that have made up or currently make up the whole of Buddhist traditions.

- Schools of Buddhism
The Buddhist Nalanda university and monastery was a major center of learning in India from the 5th century CE until the 12th century.

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Painting of Nāgārjuna from the Shingon Hassozō, a series of scrolls authored by the Shingon school of Buddhism. Japan, Kamakura Period (13th-14th century)

Nagarjuna

Nāgārjuna (c.

Nāgārjuna (c.

Painting of Nāgārjuna from the Shingon Hassozō, a series of scrolls authored by the Shingon school of Buddhism. Japan, Kamakura Period (13th-14th century)
A map of the Satavahana Kingdom, showing the location of Amaravathi (where Nāgārjuna may have lived and worked according to Walser) and Vidarbha (the birthplace of Nāgārjuna according to Kumārajīva).
A model of the Amaravati Stupa
Nicholas Roerich "Nagarjuna Conqueror of the Serpent" (1925)
Golden statue of Nāgārjuna at Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland

Nāgārjuna is widely considered to be the founder of the madhyamaka (centrism, middle-way) school of Buddhist philosophy and a defender of the Mahāyāna movement.

At this point in Buddhist history, the Buddhist community was already divided into various Buddhist schools and had spread throughout India.