A report on Buenos Aires and May Revolution

The rule of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain was resisted by Spaniards, and cast doubts on the legitimacy of the Spanish viceroys.
Our Lady of Buen Aire in front of the National Migration Department
The US Declaration of Independence inspired similar movements in the Spanish colonies in South America.
Juan de Garay founding Buenos Aires in 1580. The initial settlement, founded by Pedro de Mendoza, had been abandoned since 1542.
William Carr Beresford surrenders to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
Aldus verthoont hem de stadt Buenos Ayrros geleegen in Rio de la Plata, painting by a Dutch sailor who anchored at the port around 1628.
The coronation of Infanta Carlota Joaquina was considered an alternative to revolution.
Emeric Essex Vidal, General view of Buenos Ayres from the Plaza de Toros, 1820. In this area now lies the Plaza San Martín.
Santiago de Liniers ruled as viceroy between 1807 and 1809.
Impression of the Buenos Aires Cathedral by Carlos Pellegrini, 1829.
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, the last viceroy to rule in Buenos Aires.
View of the Avenida de Mayo in 1915
Map of Cádiz during the French siege.
Construction of the Obelisk of Buenos Aires on the 9 de Julio Avenue, 1936.
Secret meeting of the revolutionaries at the house of Nicolás Rodríguez Peña.
9 de Julio Avenue, 1986.
Juan José Castelli asks Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros for an open cabildo.
Catalinas Norte is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies, foreign subsidiaries, and diplomatic offices. It is located in the Retiro and San Nicolás neighborhoods.
Invitation to the open cabildo of May 22
Satellite view of the Greater Buenos Aires area, and the Río de la Plata.
An open cabildo discussed the legitimacy of the viceroy and the new local government that replaced him.
Buenos Aires Botanical Garden
The proposal of Cornelio Saavedra got the majority of votes.
Heavy rain and thunderstorm in Plaza San Martin. Thunderstorms are usual during the summer.
The people gathered in front of the Buenos Aires Cabildo
The Buenos Aires City Hall in the right corner of the entrance to the Avenida de Mayo
Members of the Primera Junta
Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires City
The Primera Junta ruled after the revolution.
The Immigrants' Hotel, constructed in 1906, received and assisted the thousands of immigrants arriving to the city. The hotel is now a National Museum.
Mariano Moreno was an influential member of the Primera Junta.
Villa 31, a villa miseria in Buenos Aires
Bartolomé Mitre wrote one of the first historical interpretations of the May Revolution.
The Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in the city.
The revolutionaries of the May Revolution declared loyalty to Ferdinand VII of Spain.
The Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the main stock exchange and financial center of Argentina.
The May Pyramid, commemorative monument at Plaza de Mayo
Headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina, the national bank and the largest in the country's banking sector.
Buenos Aires Bus, the city's tourist bus service. The official estimate is that the bus carries between 700 and 800 passengers per day, and has carried half a million passengers since its opening.
Monument to the Carta Magna and Four Regions of Argentina in the neighborhood of Palermo
The Centro Cultural Kirchner (Kirchner Cultural Center), located at the former Central Post Office, is the largest of Latin America.
Homage to Buenos Aires, a mural located at the Carlos Gardel station of the Buenos Aires Underground. It represents a typical scene from the city and several of its icons, such as singer Carlos Gardel, the Obelisco, the port, tango dancing and the Abasto market.
Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art.
MALBA
The interior of El Ateneo Grand Splendid, a celebrated bookstore located in the barrio of Recoleta.
Tango dancers during the World tango dance tournament.
The Buenos Aires Philharmonic.
Gaumont Cinema opened in 1912.
A screening at Parque Centenario, as part of the 2011 edition of BAFICI
A fashion show at the Planetarium in 2013, as part of BAFWEEK.
View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte, on Buenos Aires' historical center. The city's characteristic convergence of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts and modernist architecture.
Teatro Colón.
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, a public high school in Buenos Aires, and it is one of the most prestigious in Argentina and Latin America.
University of Buenos Aires' Law School in Recoleta
July 9 Avenue
Aeroparque Jorge Newbery
A Mitre Line Trenes Argentinos train in Retiro railway station
Map of the Greater Buenos Aires Commuter Rail Network
EcoBici.
200 Series rolling stock at San José de Flores station, Buenos Aires Underground.
Buenos Aires Underground map
Metrobus, Paseo del Bajo.
Buquebus high-speed ferries connect Buenos Aires to Uruguay
Campo Argentino de Polo, home of the Argentine Open Polo Championship, the most important global event of this discipline
La Bombonera during a night game of Copa Libertadores between Boca Juniors v. Colo Colo.
Luna Park

The May Revolution (Revolución de Mayo) was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.

- May Revolution

This is known as the May Revolution, which is now celebrated as a national holiday.

- Buenos Aires

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Argentina

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Country in the southern half of South America.

Country in the southern half of South America.

The surrender of Beresford to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata
Portrait of General José de San Martin, Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru.
People gathered in front of the Buenos Aires Cabildo during the May Revolution
Julio Argentino Roca was a major figure of the Generation of '80 and is known for directing the "Conquest of the Desert". During his two terms as President many changes occurred, particularly major infrastructure projects of railroads; large-scale immigration from Europe and laicizing legislation strengthening state power.
Official presidential portrait of Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1948
Admiral Emilio Massera, Lieutenant General Jorge Videla and Brigadier General Orlando Agosti (from left to right) – observing the Independence Day military parade on Avenida del Libertador, 9 July 1978.
Two members of the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers guarding the Constitution of the Argentine Nation inside the Palace of the Congress.
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside of Asia, at 6960.8 m, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
The national animal of Argentina is the Rufous hornero, a small songbird native to South America
Argentina features geographical locations such as this glacier, known as the Perito Moreno Glacier
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
The National Congress composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
Provinces of Argentina.
G 20 leaders gathered in Argentina for the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit.
Diplomatic missions of Argentina.
Argentine destroyer ARA Almirante Brown (D-10)
A proportional representation of Argentina exports, 2019
The Catalinas Norte is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies.
Atucha Nuclear Power Plant was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. The electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear reactors: The Embalse Nuclear Power Station, the Atucha I and II.
Buenos Aires Underground is the oldest underground railway in Latin America, the Southern Hemisphere and the Spanish speaking world.
"Estudio País 24, the Program of the Argentines" in Channel 7, the first television station in the country
SAC-D is an Argentine earth science satellite built by INVAP and launched in 2011.
President Macri in the INVAP with the SAOCOM A and B, two planned Earth observation satellite constellation of Argentine Space Agency CONAE. the scheduled launch dates for 1A and 1B were further pushed back to 2018 and 2020.
The cacique Qom Félix Díaz meets with then president Mauricio Macri.
Over 25 million Argentines have at least one Italian immigrant ancestor.
Dialectal variants of the Spanish language in Argentina
Francis, the first pope from the Americas, was born and raised in Argentina.
Argentina has historically been placed high in the global rankings of literacy, with rates similar to those of developed countries.
The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's 3,000 medical graduates, annually
El Ateneo Grand Splendid was named the second most beautiful bookshop in the world by The Guardian.
Sun of May on the first Argentine coin, 1813
Four of the most influential Argentine writers. Top-left to bottom-right: Julio Cortázar, Victoria Ocampo, Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares
Martha Argerich, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the second half of the 20th century
Andy Muschietti, director of It, the highest-grossing horror film of all-time.
Las Nereidas Font by Lola Mora
View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte, on Buenos Aires' historical centre. The city's characteristic convergence of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts, and modernist architecture.
Diego Maradona, one of the FIFA Player of the 20th Century
Lionel Messi, seven times Ballon d'Or winner, is the current captain of the Argentina national football team.
Argentine beef as asado, a traditional dish
The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with artwork dating from 13,000 to 9,000 years ago.
Carlos Gardel, the most prominent figure in the history of tango
Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón, 1947
Argentine Polo Open Championship.
Civilian casualties after the air attack and massacre on Plaza de Mayo, June 1955
Juan Perón and his wife Isabel Perón, 1973
Argentinians soldiers during the Falklands War
Néstor Kirchner and his wife and political successor, Cristina Kirchner
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside of Asia, at 6960.8 m, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
Argentina map of Köppen climate classification
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
The National Congress composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
Provinces of Argentina
Lockheed Martin A-4AR Fightinghawk operated by the Argentine Air Force
Fiat factory in Córdoba, Argentina
Rosario-Córdoba Highway
Passenger train near Mar del Plata
Argentine provinces by population (2010)
Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires
Argentine beef as asado

Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires.

Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty, the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.

Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

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The last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.

The last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.

Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and de jure extension (light green)
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and de jure extension (light green)
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and de jure extension (light green)
Viceroyalty of the Río de La Plata administrative divisions

Buenos Aires, located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento, was chosen as the capital.

These events proved decisive at the 1810 May Revolution events deposing Viceroy Cisneros at Buenos Aires.

Portrait of Liniers, Museo Naval de Madrid

Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires

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French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate.

French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate.

Portrait of Liniers, Museo Naval de Madrid
William Carr Beresford surrenders to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the River Plate, painting by Charles Fouqueray.
Liniers house in Buenos Aires
Execution of Santiago de Liniers.
Museum at the former house of Liniers, at Alta Gracia, Córdoba.

But when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba.

Needing new markets, Britain invaded Buenos Aires and Montevideo, two Spanish colonies in South America (Spain was allied to France in the war).

Above: William Beresford surrenders to Santiago de Liniers (1806)

British invasions of the River Plate

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The British invasions of the River Plate were two unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of areas in the Spanish colony of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata that were located around the Río de la Plata in South America – in present-day Argentina and Uruguay.

The British invasions of the River Plate were two unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of areas in the Spanish colony of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata that were located around the Río de la Plata in South America – in present-day Argentina and Uruguay.

Above: William Beresford surrenders to Santiago de Liniers (1806)
River Plate, 1806
Portrait of Don Santiago de Liniers. Naval Museum of Madrid.
Sir William Beresford, commander of the British troops.
Lieutenant-General John Whitelocke, commander of the British forces in the second invasion.

A detachment from the British army occupied Buenos Aires for 46 days in 1806 before being expelled.

In 1808, Napoleon placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne of Spain giving the chance in 1810 for the May Revolution to take place, as a prelude to the Declaration of Independence of Argentina of 1816.

Montevideo

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Capital and largest city of Uruguay.

Capital and largest city of Uruguay.

Cerro de Montevideo as seen from the city, in 1865.
17th century map of the Río de la Plata basin
"Monte Video from the Anchorage outside the Harbour" by Emeric Essex Vidal (1820). The earliest securely dated picture of the city.
Map of Montevideo during the Guerra Grande (1843–1851).
Plaza Independencia around 1900.
A street in Montevideo's Ciudad Vieja.
Map of Uruguay showing Montevideo on the Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Sunset in Montevideo.
Map of the barrios of Montevideo
Palacio Salvo
Pocitos is the most populous Montevideo neighborhood.
The Legislative Palace.
World Trade Center Montevideo
Telecommunication Tower.
Plaza de la Constitución in winter
Solís Theatre
Monumento La Carreta
Obelisk of Montevideo in the Parque Batlle
The Botanic Gardens of Parque Prado
Parque Rodó.
Fortaleza del Cerro
Punta Brava lighthouse.
Fishermen in Punta Carretas.
Playa de los Pocitos
Central Cemetery.
Palacio Municipal, headquarters of the Intendencia.
Solis Theatre in Montevideo
Painter shop in Montevideo
The poet Delmira Agustini.
The writer Eduardo Galeano.
Fountain in the entry of the Cabildo
Uruguayan officials conversing at a meeting at the Palacio Taranco, 6 November 2010
Museo Historico Nacional de Montevideo
Museo Torres García
Museo Naval de Montevideo
Montevideo Carnival: drummers
"Zonal queens"
Estadio Centenario
Rugby in Montevideo
Cathedral Interior
Punta Carretas Church
Montevideo's beach on the River Plate
Hotel Casino Carrasco
Libertador Avenue
TV reporter in Montevideo
Estación Central General Artigas.
View of the new railway station
Carrasco International Airport.
Buquebus high-speed ferries connect Montevideo to Argentina
Port of Montevideo
Kindergarten kids at a public school in Montevideo
A laundress girl in a school play in Montevideo

Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires.

During the May Revolution of 1810 and the subsequent uprising of the provinces of Rio de la Plata, the Spanish colonial government moved to Montevideo.

From top and left: Crossing of the Andes, Battle of Salta, 22 May 1810 Open Cabildo, Battle of San Lorenzo, Battle of Suipacha, 1813 Assembly, Shooting of Liniers, Jujuy Exodus.

Argentine War of Independence

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Secessionist civil war fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown.

Secessionist civil war fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown.

From top and left: Crossing of the Andes, Battle of Salta, 22 May 1810 Open Cabildo, Battle of San Lorenzo, Battle of Suipacha, 1813 Assembly, Shooting of Liniers, Jujuy Exodus.
The May Revolution forced the viceroy to resign. He was replaced by a government Junta, the Primera Junta.
Cornelio Saavedra, president of the "Primera Junta".
Battle of San Nicolás.
Horse riding in Asencio
San Martín wrapped in the flag.

The territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy.

This began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon as the news was known.

Portrait of Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros

Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros

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Spanish naval officer born in Cartagena.

Spanish naval officer born in Cartagena.

Portrait of Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Portrait of Pedro Murillo, by Joaquín Pinto.
The open cabildo of 22 May.

An open cabildo deposed him as viceroy during the May Revolution, but he attempted to be the president of the new government junta, thus retaining power.

The popular unrest in Buenos Aires did not allow that, so he resigned.

Oath of the Constitution of Buenos Aires, 1854.

Plaza de Mayo

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Oath of the Constitution of Buenos Aires, 1854.
The old colonnade, 1864.
1867 view of the Plaza.
The Cathedral and May Pyramid, c. 1880.
Fiestas Mayas, 1899.
Celebration of the May Revolution, 1910.
Rare snowfall on Buenos Aires, at the Plaza de Mayo, 1918.
¡El pueblo quiere saber de qué se trata!, the May Revolution of May 25, 1810
Famous Peronist demonstration of October 17, 1945, known as Loyalty Day
The Bombing of Plaza de Mayo, June 16, 1955
The second "March of Resistance" of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, December 9, 1982

The Plaza de Mayo (May Square) is a city square and main foundational site of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

On the occasion of the first anniversary of the May Revolution in 1811, the Pirámide de Mayo (May Pyramid) was inaugurated in the square's hub, becoming Buenos Aires' first national monument.

Allegory of the Declaration of Independence, by Luis de Servi.

Argentine Declaration of Independence

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Commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816, by the Congress of Tucumán.

Commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816, by the Congress of Tucumán.

Allegory of the Declaration of Independence, by Luis de Servi.
Quechua version
Aymara version

The 1810 May Revolution followed the deposition of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII by the Napoleonic French.

The congress continued its work in Buenos Aires in 1817, but it got stopped in 1820 after the Battle of Cepeda, which deepened the differences between the Unitarian Party, who favored a strong central government, and the Federales, who favored a weak central government.

May Avenue

Avenida de Mayo

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May Avenue
Map of the avenue

May Avenue (Avenida de Mayo) is an avenue in Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina.

The avenue was named in honor of the May Revolution of 1810 (the event that led to Argentine Independence).