Bukovina

Northern BukovinaBucovinaBukovynaBukowinaBukovinianBukovynianDuchy of BucovinaNorthern BucovinaBuchenlandBucovina Day
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina; Буковина, Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe.wikipedia
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Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Bessarabiaoccupied by the Soviet UnionSoviet occupation
In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union in violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and currently is part of Ukraine.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.

Duchy of Bukovina

BukovinaAustrian BukovinaBukowina
A region of Moldavia during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, and Austria-Hungary.
After the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Bukovina lands since the 14th century had been part of the Principality of Moldavia, with Suceava being the princely capital from 1388 to 1565.

General Congress of Bukovina

became partcongressGeneral Congress
After World War I, Romania established its control over Bukovina.
General Congress of Bukovina was a self-proclaimed representative body created in the aftermath of the Romanian military intervention in Bukovina, which proclaimed the union of the region with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918.

Kingdom of Romania

RomaniaRomanian KingdomRomanian
After World War I, Romania established its control over Bukovina.
The kingdom's territory during the reign of King Carol I, between 14 March (O.S.) (27 March (N.S.)) 1881 and 27 September (O.S.) (10 October (N.S.)) 1914 is sometimes referred as the Romanian Old Kingdom, to distinguish it from "Greater Romania", which included the provinces that became part of the state after World War I (Bessarabia, Banat, Bukovina, and Transylvania).

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

Molotov-Ribbentrop PactNazi-Soviet PactHitler-Stalin Pact
In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union in violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and currently is part of Ukraine.
This was followed by Soviet annexations of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and parts of Romania (Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and the Hertza region).

Chernivtsi Oblast

ChernivtsiChernivtsi regionChernivetska Oblast
In modern Ukraine, the name "Bukovina" is unofficial, but is common when referring to the Chernivtsi Oblast, as over two thirds of the oblast is the northern part of Bukovina.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Chernivetsʹka oblastʹ) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.

Siret

SeretSerethSiret River
Bukovina and neighboring regions were the nucleus of the Moldavian Principality, with the city of Suceava as its capital from 1388 (after Baia and Siret). In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest (the hilly forests separating Chernivtsi and Siret valleys), at which Stephen III of Moldavia (Stephen the Great), managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland.
It is situated in the historical region of Bukovina.

Suceava County

SuceavaBucovinacounty of Suceava
In Romania the term Northern Bukovina is sometimes synonymous with the entire Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine, while (Southern) Bukovina refers to the Suceava County of Romania (although 30% of the present day Suceava County covers territory outside of the historical Bukovina).
Most of its territory lies in the southern portion of the historical region of Bukovina, while the remainder forms part of Western Moldavia proper.

Ukraine

UkrainianUKRUkrainia
In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union in violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and currently is part of Ukraine. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine.
Modern-day Bukovina was annexed by Romania and Carpathian Ruthenia was admitted to the Czechoslovak Republic as an autonomy.

Rusyns

RusynCarpatho-RusynRusyn people
Pokuttya was inhabited by Ruthenians (the predecessors of modern Ukrainians and Rusyns) and Hutsuls; the latter also reside in western Bukovina.
Since the 18th century this term "came to be associated primarily with those Ukrainians who lived under the Habsburg monarchy, in Galicia, Bukovyna, and Transcarpathia", and since early 20th century "became even more restricted: it was generally used to refer to the inhabitants of Transcarpathia and to Transcarpathian emigrants in the United States", for whom the terms Rusyn and Carpatho-Rusyn are more commonly used since the 1970s.

Romania

ROURomanianRomânia
The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine.
Following World War I after declaring its neutrality in 1914, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers starting with 1916, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania.

Moldova (river)

MoldovaMoldova RiverMoldova Valley
The name of Moldavia (Moldova) is derived from a river (Moldova River) flowing in Bukovina.
The river rises from the Obcina Feredeu Mountains of Bukovina in Suceava County and joins the Siret near the city of Roman in Neamț County.

Voroneț Monastery

Voroneţ MonasteryVoroneţVoroneț
In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Putna, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna, Arbore and others.
It is one of the famous painted monasteries from southern Bukovina, in Suceava County.

Suceava

SuczawaBurdujeniCetatea Sucevei
Bukovina and neighboring regions were the nucleus of the Moldavian Principality, with the city of Suceava as its capital from 1388 (after Baia and Siret).
Together with the rest of Bukovina (Buchenland), Suceava was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy (and, later, the Austrian Empire as well as Austria-Hungary) from 1775 to 1918 (with the border of the Habsburg domains passing just south-east of the city).

Grigore III Ghica

Grigore (III) GhicaGrigore GhicaGrigore III
The name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became the Austrian Empire in 1804, and Austria-Hungary in 1867.
A Phanariote ruler (domnitor) of the Ghica family, Grigore Ghica was assassinated by the Ottomans for opposing the annexation of the northwestern part of Moldavia (later named Bukovina) by the Habsburg Empire.

Chernivtsi

CzernowitzCernăuțiCernăuţi
In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest (the hilly forests separating Chernivtsi and Siret valleys), at which Stephen III of Moldavia (Stephen the Great), managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland.
It is situated on the upper course of the River Prut, and is the administrative center of Chernivtsi Oblast (province) – the northern, Ukrainian part of the historical region of Bukovina.

Ukrainian language

UkrainianUkrainian-languagemodern Ukrainian language
The official German name of the province under Austrian rule (1775–1918), die Bukowina, was derived from the Polish form Bukowina, which in turn was derived from the common Slavic form of buk, meaning beech tree (cf the Ukrainian бук ; also the German Buche).
For much of the 19th century the Austrian authorities demonstrated some preference for Polish culture, but the Ukrainians were relatively free to partake in their own cultural pursuits in Halychyna and Bukovyna, where Ukrainian was widely used in education and official documents.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–Hungary
A region of Moldavia during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, and Austria-Hungary. The name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became the Austrian Empire in 1804, and Austria-Hungary in 1867.

Putna Monastery

Putna
In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Putna, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna, Arbore and others.
Putna was founded on the lands perambulated by the Putna (which has its source in the Obcina Mare mountains, Bukovina).

Sucevița Monastery

SuceviţaSuceviţa MonasterySucevița
In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Putna, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna, Arbore and others.
It is located in the southern part of the historical region of Bukovina (northwestern Moldavia).

Moldovans

MoldovanMoldavianMoldavians
The Moldavian nobility had traditionally formed the ruling class in that territory.
As the ethnonym "Romanian" was gaining more and more popularity throughout Western Moldavia and Bukovina during the 19th century, its dissemination in Bessarabia, a more backward and rural province of the Russian Empire at the time, was welcomed mostly by the Romanian-oriented intellectuals, while the majority of the rural population continued to use the old self-identification "Moldovans".

Ukrainians

UkrainianUkrainian peopleUkraine
Ruthenians is an archaic name for Ukrainians, while the Hutsuls are a regional Ukrainian subgroup.
The appellation Ukrainians initially came into common usage in Central Ukraine and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, and in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s.

Moldovița Monastery

MoldoviţaAnnunciation ChurchMoldoviţa Monastery
In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Putna, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna, Arbore and others.
Stephen's illegitimate son, Petru Rareș, who ruled Moldavia from 1527 to 1538 and again from 1541 to 1546, promoted a new vision for Bukovina churches.

Ruthenians

RuthenianRuthenesRusyns
Pokuttya was inhabited by Ruthenians (the predecessors of modern Ukrainians and Rusyns) and Hutsuls; the latter also reside in western Bukovina.
After the partition of Poland the term Ruthenian referred exclusively to people of the Rusyn- and Ukrainian-speaking areas of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, especially in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Bukovina, and Transcarpathia.

Stephen III of Moldavia

Stephen the GreatŞtefan cel MareȘtefan cel Mare
In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest (the hilly forests separating Chernivtsi and Siret valleys), at which Stephen III of Moldavia (Stephen the Great), managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland.
The Poles started to march towards Poland, but Stephen ambushed and routed them at a ravine in Bukovina on 25 and 26 October.