A report on Bulgaria

Odrysian golden wreath in the National History Museum
Knyaz Boris I meeting the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius.
The walls of Tsarevets fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the second empire
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 marked the end of medieval Bulgarian statehood.
The Russo-Bulgarian defence of Shipka Pass in 1877
Borders of Bulgaria according to the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
Tsar Boris III
Georgi Dimitrov, leader of the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1946 to 1949
Topography of Bulgaria
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
The Pirin mountain range
Lacerta viridis in Ropotamo, one of Bulgaria's 16 biosphere reserves
Independence Square in Sofia: The headquarters of the Presidency (right), the National Assembly (centre) and the Council of Ministers (left).
Mikoyan MiG-29 jet fighters of the Bulgarian Air Force
Historical development of GDP per capita
Economic growth (green) and unemployment (blue) statistics since 2001
Tree map of Bulgarian exports in 2016
The launch of BulgariaSat-1 by SpaceX
Trakia motorway
Population trend since 1960
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
The Rectorate of Sofia University
Kuker in Lesichovo
Christo's Mastaba in Hyde Park, London
Grigor Dimitrov at the 2015 Italian Open
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia

Country in Southeast Europe.

- Bulgaria

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Overall

Sofia

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The first seal of the city from 1878 which calls it Sredets
O: head of river-god Strymon
R: trident 
This coin imitates Macedonian issue from 187 to 168 BC. It was struck by Serdi tribe as their own currency
The eastern gate of Serdica in the "Complex Ancient Serdica"
Dated from the early 4th century, the Church of Saint George is the oldest standing edifice in Sofia
The 13th century lord of Sredets Kaloyan and his wife Desislava, Boyana Church
Sofia in mid-19th-century
The allied bombing of Sofia in World War II in 1944
A view over central Sofia, with the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the foreground and Vitosha in the distance
Interior of the ancient Saint Sofia Church.
Neoclassical architecture, Poligrafia office center.
Borisova gradina.
A map of the 24 districts of Sofia
The National Assembly building.
The Council of Ministers (left), Presidency (right) and the former Communist Party House.
Ivan Vazov National Theatre
The Museum of Contemporary Art
Interior of the medieval Boyana Church
The Banya Bashi Mosque an example of Ottoman architecture.
Vitosha Boulevard, the main shopping street in the city
Armeets Arena during the ATP Sofia Open
Students of the National Academy of Arts (circa 1952–53). People aged 20–25 years have been the most numerous group in the city since the process of Bulgarian urbanisation
Business Park Sofia
A Siemens Desiro train of the Bulgarian State Railways at the Central Railway Station
Cherni Vrah Boulevard
The Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy of Sofia University

Sofia ( София, ) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

Plovdiv

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Ancient settlements with names related to "deva". Pulpudeva denotes Plovdiv in which the latter name is rooted.
Map describing the city as "Philippopolis, que et Poneropolis, Duloupolis, Eumolpiada, item Trimontium, at que Pulpudena"
Plovdiv seen from space
A view of Nebet tepe hill
A view of Plovdiv with the Rhodope Mountains in the background.
Plan of the known parts of the Roman city superimposed on a plan of modern Plovdiv.
Monument of Krum in Plovdiv, who was the first Bulgarian ruler to capture Plovdiv.
The Virgin Mary Church.
Nebet Tepe, drawing from The Graphic – London, 1885
Taat tepe, in Plovdiv, with the governor's palace and Maritsa river in the foreground. Drawing from The Graphic – London, 1885
A preserved medieval street in the Old town
A performance in the Roman Odeon
The Art Gallery of Plovdiv
Plovdiv Central railway station.
Bus in Plovdiv
Trolleybus in Plovdiv
Map of Plovdiv's cycling infrastructure
Green: built
Orange: planned
Plovdiv Airport.
A view from the "singing fountains" in Tsar Simeon's garden.
A view from the City garden.
Hristo Stoichkov
Sign showing Plovdiv's sister cities
The Virgin Mary Eastern Orthodox Church
The Plovdiv Synagogue
A Protestant church
The St Louis Roman Catholic Cathedral
St George Armenian Church
The Dzhumaya Mosque
The Orthodox seminary
Theatre
Roman stadium
Odeon
Forum
The Bishop`s basilica of Phiippopolis
Bishop basilica
Small basilica
Small bacilica
3rd century round tower
Mosaics in Eirene residence
Aqueduct
Nebet tepe
Balabanov house
Lamartine House
Church of St Constantine and Helena
Klianti House
Old town
Street of Old town
Plovdiv Regional Ethnographic Museum
Old town
Old town - Plovdiv
Plovdiv Regional Historical Museum
Hindliyan House
Hisar gate with the ethnographical museum
Mall Plovdiv Plaza
Mall Markovo tepe
Mall Plovdiv
Forum Trakia shopping center
Velodrome
Plovdiv Stadium and sport complex
Rowing base
Lokomotiv Stadium
Hristo Botev Stadium
Plovdiv University sports hall
A panoramic view
Looking down one of the streets in Plovdiv.
Plan of the medieval fortress

Plovdiv (Пловдив, ), is the second-largest city in Bulgaria (after Sofia), standing on the banks of the Maritsa river in the historical region of Thrace.

First Bulgarian Empire in 850

First Bulgarian Empire

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Medieval Bulgar-Slavic and later Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded in 680–681 after part of the Bulgars, led by Asparuh, moved south to the northeastern Balkans.

Medieval Bulgar-Slavic and later Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded in 680–681 after part of the Bulgars, led by Asparuh, moved south to the northeastern Balkans.

First Bulgarian Empire in 850
First Bulgarian Empire in 850
Slavic tribes and states in Early Middle Ages
The Bulgar colonies after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century.
Zones of control by Slavic tribes and Bulgars in the late 7th century
Part of the Pliska fortress.
Territorial expansion during the reign of Krum
Bulgaria under Presian
Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Simeon I
Emperor Simeon I: The Morning Star of Slavonic Literature, painting by Alfons Mucha
Bulgaria under the rule of Emperor Samuel
Samuel's Fortress in Ohrid
Above: The Byzantines defeat Samuel at Kleidion; below: the death of Samuel, Manasses Chronicle
Khan Omurtag was the first Bulgarian ruler known to have claimed divine origin, Madrid Skylitzes
The symbol ıYı is associated with the Dulo clan and the First Empire
A replica of a Bulgarian sabre found near the town of Varbitsa
A battle scene of the Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 894–896, Madrid Skylitzes
A pendant of the Preslav treasure
Slavic mythology: Sadko (1876) by Ilya Repin
The Pliska rosette dated from the pagan period has seven fingers representing the Classical planets
Bulgarian soldiers kill Christians during the persecutions, Menologion of Basil II
Baptism of Boris I and his court, painting by Nikolai Pavlovich
A medieval icon of Saint Clement of Ohrid, a high-ranking official of the Bulgarian Church, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Bulgarians and the Slavs
Expansion of Bogomilism in medieval Europe
Culture of the First Bulgarian Empire
The ruins of Pliska, the first capital of Bulgaria
The Madara Rider
Early Christian reliefs
Ceramic icon of Saint Theodore, Preslav ceramics, c. 900.
The Old Bulgarian alphabet
A page with the Alphabet Prayer by Constantine of Preslav

The First Bulgarian Empire became known simply as Bulgaria since its recognition by the Byzantine Empire in 681.

Serbia

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Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; as many as 18 Roman emperors were born in modern-day Serbia
The Serbian Empire, a medieval Serbian state that emerged from the Kingdom of Serbia. It was established in 1346 by Dušan the Mighty
The Battle of Kosovo (1389) is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition and national identity.
The Great Migrations of the Serbs, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević
Great Serbian Retreat in 1915 led by Peter I of Serbia. As the part of Entente Powers during WW I, Serbia lost about 850,000 people, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Great Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina region with the Kingdom of Serbia in Novi Sad in 1918
A group of children wait in line at an unidentified Croatian Ustaše concentration camp in Croatia, for Serbs and Jews during WWII.
A monument commemorating the victims of Sajmište concentration camp, a part of the Holocaust in German-occupied Serbia and genocide of Serbs in Independent State of Croatia.
The principle of non-alignment was the core of Yugoslav and later Serbian diplomacy. The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in September 1961
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and territories of Serb breakaway states Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina during the Yugoslav wars
Serbian and other children refugees of the Kosovo War. The war ended with NATO bombing which remains a controversial topic.
Topographic map of Serbia including Kosovo
The Iron Gates, Đerdap National Park.
Picea omorika is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Tara mountain in western Serbia.
Uvac Gorge, one of the last remaining habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe.
The Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world.
Map of Serbian language - official (dark blue) or recognized as minority language (light blue).
Building of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade
NIS headquarters in Novi Sad
Serbia is among the world's largest producer of plums as of 2018; plum is considered the national fruit of Serbia.
Serbia Product Exports map 2019
The Fiat 500L is manufactured in the FCA plant in Kragujevac.
Đerdap 1 Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power stations in Europe
Serbian motorway network:
Air Serbia's airplane taking off from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Astrophysicist Milutin Milanković was an important climate science theorist
Nikola Tesla contributed to the design of the modern AC electricity supply system.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1841
The National Museum of Serbia.
Mileševa monastery's White Angel fresco (1235) was in the first Europe-to-America satellite broadcast.
Performance artist Marina Abramović
Miroslav's Gospel (1186) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript on parchment listed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.
Ivo Andrić, Yugoslav writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in his home in Belgrade
Filip Višnjić sings to the gusle by Sreten Stojanović
Exit Festival in Novi Sad, proclaimed as the Best Major European festival at the EU Festival Awards
Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
A Serbian Christmas meal with roast pork, Russian salad and red wine.
Gibanica, a Serbian pastry usually made with cottage cheese and eggs.
Tennis player Novak Djokovic, he has won 20 Grand Slam men's singles titles, including a record nine Australian Open titles.
Nikola Jokić, Two-time NBA MVP and four-time NBA All-Star. Serbia is one of the countries with the largest number of NBA players and with the greatest success in FIBA international competitions.
Serbia men's national water polo team held Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship, World Cup and World League titles simultaneously in period from 2014 to 2016.
Mothers with children in the Croatian Ustaše Stara Gradiška concentration camp, a camp for Serbs and Jews in the Independent State of Croatia during WWII.

It shares land borders with Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest, and claiming a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.

Turkey

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Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest.

Greece

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

The entrance of the Treasury of Atreus (13th BC) in Mycenae
Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (750–550 BC)
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens, icon of classical Greece.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Map of Alexander's short-lived empire (334–323 BC). After his death the lands were divided between the Diadochi
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 100 BC) is considered to be the first known mechanical analog computer (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
A view from the ancient royal Macedonian tombs in Vergina
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built in 161 AD
Dome of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki (8th century), one of the 15 UNESCO's Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of the city
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, originally built in the late 7th century as a Byzantine citadel and beginning from 1309 used by the Knights Hospitaller as an administrative centre
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire after the death of Basil II in 1025
The Byzantine castle of Angelokastro successfully repulsed the Ottomans during the First Great Siege of Corfu in 1537, the siege of 1571, and the Second Great Siege of Corfu in 1716, causing them to abandon their plans to conquer Corfu.
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, one of the best-known Ottoman structures remaining in Greece.
The sortie (exodus) of Messolonghi, depicting the Third Siege of Missolonghi, painted by Theodoros Vryzakis.
The Battle of Navarino in 1827 secured Greek independence.
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, painted by Peter von Hess in 1839.
The territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1947.
Hellenic Army formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris, July 1919.
Map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos as its supervising genius.
The Axis occupation of Greece.
People in Athens celebrate the liberation from the Axis powers, October 1944. Postwar Greece would soon experience a civil war and political polarization.
Signing at Zappeion by Constantine Karamanlis of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.
Navagio (shipwreck) bay, Zakynthos island
The Greek mainland and several small islands seen from Nydri, Lefkada
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and mythical abode of the Gods of Olympus
The building of the Hellenic Parliament (Old Royal Palace) in central Athens.
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first governor, founder of the modern Greek State, and distinguished European diplomat
Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister since 2019
Representation through: 
 embassy
 embassy in another country
 general consulate
 no representation
 Greece
GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Greece exports, 2019
Greece's debt percentage since 1977, compared to the average of the Eurozone
Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos
Solar-power generation potential in Greece
Greek companies control 16.2% of the world's total merchant fleet making it the largest in the world. They are ranked in the top 5 for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers.
Santorini, a popular tourist destination, is ranked as the world's top island in many travel magazines and sites.
The Rio–Antirrio bridge connects mainland Greece to the Peloponnese.
Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum
Georgios Papanikolaou, a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection
Hermoupolis, on the island of Syros, is the capital of the Cyclades.
Population pyramid of Greece in 2017
Our Lady of Tinos
Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Today, Greek is the dominant language throughout the country.
A map of the fifty countries with the largest Greek diaspora communities.
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Ionian Academy in Corfu, the first academic institution of modern Greece.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, still used for theatrical plays.
Close-up of the Charioteer of Delphi, a celebrated statue from the 5th century BC.
Towerhouses of Vatheia in Mani peninsula
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece
Parnassos Literary Society, painted by Georgios Roilos (Kostis Palamas is at the center)
A statue of Plato in Athens.
Cretan dancers of traditional folk music
Rebetes in Karaiskaki, Piraeus (1933). Left Markos Vamvakaris with bouzouki.
Mikis Theodorakis was one of the most popular and significant Greek composers
A Greek salad, with feta and olives.
Theodoros Angelopoulos, winner of the Palme d'Or in 1998, notable director in the history of the European cinema
Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon; 1896 Summer Olympics.
Angelos Charisteas scoring Greece's winning goal in the UEFA Euro 2004 Final
The Greek national basketball team in 2008. Twice European champions (1987 and 2005) and second in the world in 2006
Procession in honor of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (15 August)

Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast.

North Macedonia

16 links

Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Tribal ethnes in the Southern Balkans prior to the expansion of Macedon
Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC; ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"
Miniature from the Manasses Chronicle, depicting the defeat of Samuil by Basil II and the return of his blinded soldiers
Nikola Karev, head of the provisional government of the short-lived Kruševo Republic during the Ilinden uprising
Celebration of the Ilinen Uprising in Kruševo during WWI Bulgarian occupation of Southern Serbia.
Members of the pro-Bulgarian Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization (MYSRO) during the Skopje Student Trial in 1927. In December, 20 local youths were accused of fighting for an Independent Macedonia.
The division of the Ottoman territories in Europe (including the region of Macedonia) after the Balkan Wars according to the Treaty of Bucharest
Dimitar Vlahov, Mihajlo Apostolski, Metodija Andonov-Čento, Lazar Koliševski and others, greeted in Skopje on 20 November 1944, a week after its liberation
Lazar Koliševski was the political leader of SR Macedonia and briefly of SFR Yugoslavia.
Map of operations during the 2001 insurgency
Symbolic signing of the Prespa agreement
North Macedonia commemorates its accession to NATO at the US Department of State.
Mount Korab, the highest mountain in North Macedonia.
Matka Canyon
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for North Macedonia
The Parliament Building of North Macedonia in Skopje.
Army of the Republic of North Macedonia
The flag of the then-Republic of Macedonia between 1992 and 1995, bearing the Vergina Sun
Rural/Urban municipalities
Statistical regions of North Macedonia
Vineyard in North Macedonia
Graphical depiction of North Macedonia's product exports.
The church of St. John at Kaneo and Lake Ohrid, one of the most popular tourist destinations in North Macedonia
Map of current and planned highways
European route E75 in North Macedonia
The Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje.
A 19th-century silver Hanukkah Menorah
Linguistic map of North Macedonia, 2002 census
Folk dancers
Tavče gravče
Toše Proeski Arena
The welcoming ceremony for RK Vardar after winning the 2016–17 EHF Champions League
Milcho Manchevski is a critically acclaimed Macedonian film and TV director who won the Golden Lion at Venice Film Festival

It is a landlocked country bordering Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.

Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia (1776–1783)

Bulgarians

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Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia (1776–1783)
Cyrillic alphabet of the medieval Old Bulgarian language
Map of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913). The Ottomans required a threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population to include a region into this jurisdiction.
Bulgarian peach kompot – non alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking fruit
Kukeri from the area of Burgas
Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from Gabrа, Sofia Province
Map of A. Scobel, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, 1908
Distribution of the Balkan peoples in 1911, Encyclopædia Britannica
Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor by William R. Shepherd, 1911
Distribution of European peoples in 1914 according to L. Ravenstein
Swiss ethnographic map of Europe published in 1918 by Juozas Gabrys
Percentage of Pomaks by first language according to the 1965 Census excluding Bulgarian
Distribution of Bulgarians in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of Bulgarians by first language in Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in Bulgaria according to the 2011 census
Distribution of Bulgarians in Romania according to the 2002 census
Distribution of Bulgarians in Moldova according to the 2004 census
Map of the Bulgarian diaspora in the world (includes people with Bulgarian ancestry or citizenship). 
Bulgaria
+ 100,000
+ 10,000
+ 1,000

Bulgarians (българи, ) are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeastern Europe.

The Balkan states
 Political communities that are included in the Balkans 
 Political communities that are often included in the Balkans

Balkans

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Geographic area in southeastern Europe with various geographical and historical definitions.

Geographic area in southeastern Europe with various geographical and historical definitions.

The Balkan states
 Political communities that are included in the Balkans 
 Political communities that are often included in the Balkans
Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. Croatia (yellow) joined the EU in 2013.
Panorama of the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina). Its highest peak is Botev at a height of 2,376 m.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is the largest primeval forests in the Balkans, and one of the last remaining in Europe.
View toward Rila, the highest mountain of the Balkans and Southeast Europe (2,925 m).
Lake Skadar is the largest lake in the Balkans and Southern Europe.
The Jireček Line
Pula Arena, the only remaining Roman amphitheatre to have four side towers and with all three Roman architectural orders entirely preserved.
Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Apollonia ruins near Fier, Albania.
The Balkans in 850 AD
Modern political history of the Balkans from 1796 onwards.
Hagia Sophia, built in sixth century Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral, later a mosque, then a museum, and now both a mosque and a museum
Tsarevets, a medieval stronghold in the former capital of the Bulgarian Empire – Veliko Tarnovo.
The 13th-century church of St. John at Kaneo and the Ohrid Lake in North Macedonia. The lake and town were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
State entities on the former territory of Yugoslavia, 2008
View from Santorini in Greece. Tourism is an important part of the Greek economy.
Dubrovnik in Croatia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979.
View towards Sveti Stefan in Montenegro. Tourism makes up a significant part of the Montenegrin economy.
View towards Piran in Slovenia. Tourism is a rapidly growing sector of the Slovenian economy.
Golden Sands, a popular tourist destination on the Bulgarian coast.
Belgrade is a major industrial city and the capital of Serbia.
The Stari Most in Mostar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2005.
Map showing religious denominations
Approximate distribution of religions in Albania
Ethnic map of the Balkans (1880)
Transhumance ways of the Romance-speaking Vlach shepherds in the past

The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria.

Romania

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Country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Old Romanian
Skull from the Peștera cu Oase (the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens in Europe).
Maximum territorial extent of the Kingdom of Dacia during Burebista's reign (early 40s BC.)
Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Dacia's capital during the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus)
Gutthiuda, or the land of the Gothic-speaking Thervingi, and the neighbouring tribes (370s AD)
Vlad III of Wallachia (also known as Vlad the Impaler), medieval ruler of Wallachia
Changes in Romania's territory since 1859
Alexandru Ioan Cuza was the first Domnitor (i.e. Prince) of Romania (at that time the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia) between 1862 and 1866
Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and Germans in pink.
King Carol I of Romania with his nephew Ferdinand I of Romania and great-nephew Carol II of Romania
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern Transylvania was regained after the end of World War II.
American B-24 Liberator flying over a burning oil refinery at Ploiești, as part of Operation Tidal Wave on 1 August 1943. Due to its role as a significant supplier of oil to the Axis, Romania was a prime target of Allied strategic bombing in 1943 and 1944.
King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate by the Communists in late December 1947, concomitant with the Soviet occupation of the country
Nicolae Ceaușescu ruled Romania as its communist leader from 1965 until 1989
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in the Iron Curtain that brought an end to communist rule
An anti-Communist and anti-FSN rally in Bucharest (1990)
Romania saw large waves of protests against judicial reforms during the 2017–2019 Romanian protests
Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of Lisbon
Romania joined NATO in 2004 and hosted its 2008 summit in Bucharest
Topographic map of Romania
Diplomatic missions of Romania
Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO member state that agreed to support increasing its defence spending after the 2017 Trump–Iohannis meeting at the White House
Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch–Romanian exercise at Vadu beach
Romanian Mircea Geoană, Deputy Secretary General of NATO
A proportional representation of Romania exports, 2019
The CEC Palace is situated on Bucharest's Victory Avenue
The Bucharest Stock Exchange Palace, situated in the capital's historical city centre
Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show (2009)
Romania's road network
Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930–2011)
Ethnic map of the Kingdom of Romania based on the 1930 census data
Map of Romanian language frequency as spoken in Romania by districts (according to the 2011 census)
Map highlighting the use of the Romanian language worldwide, both as a native and as a foreign language
The University of Bucharest was opened in 1864
The Colțea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.
Sibiu was the 2007 European Capital of Culture and 2019 European Region of Gastronomy
Timișoara was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2021 but will hold this title in 2023 due to COVID-19 postponement
Christmas market in Bucharest

It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, and the Black Sea to the southeast.