Bulgaria

🇧🇬BULBulgarianRepublic of BulgariaBGBGRBulgarian state2007BugarskaBulgar state
Bulgaria (България, tr. '), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr. ', ), is a country in Southeast Europe.wikipedia
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Romania

🇷🇴ROURomanian
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east.

Serbia

🇷🇸SRBSerbian
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest.

Greece

Greek🇬🇷Greeks
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast.

Turkey

🇹🇷TurkishTUR
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

Plovdiv

PhilippopolisFilibePlovdiv, Bulgaria
The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.
Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 345,213 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.

Varna

OdessosVarna, BulgariaOdessus
The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.
Varna (Варна, Varna ) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.

Sofia

Sofia MunicipalitySofia, BulgariaSerdica
The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

Burgas

BurgazDibaltumPort of Burgas
The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.
Burgas, sometimes transliterated as Bourgas, is the second largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and the fourth-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia, Plovdiv, and Varna, with a population of 202,694 inhabitants, while 277,922 live in its urban area.

First Bulgarian Empire

Bulgarian EmpireBulgariaBulgarian
The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and significantly influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded in 681 when Bulgar tribes led by Asparuh moved to the northeastern Balkans.

Balkans

BalkanBalkan Peninsulathe Balkans
The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and significantly influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script. The Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless.
The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast.

Black Sea

BlackPonticEuxine Sea
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
About a third of Europe drains into the Black Sea, including the countries of Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

Second Bulgarian Empire

Bulgarian EmpireBulgariaBulgarian
This state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241).
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.

People's Republic of Bulgaria

Bulgariacommunist regimeCommunist period
In 1946 Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state and part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.

Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria

Ivan Asen IIIvan Asen II, Tsar of BulgariaIvan II Asen
This state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241).
Ivan Asen II, also known as John Asen II or John Asan II (Иван Асен II, ; 1190s – June 1241) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1218 to 1241.

Provinces of Bulgaria

ProvinceProvincesBulgarian provinces
The population of seven million lives mainly in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, and the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Since 1999, Bulgaria has been divided into 28 provinces (области – oblasti; singular: област – oblast; also translated as "regions") which correspond approximately to the 28 districts (in Bulgarian: окръг – okrags, plural: окръзи – okrǎzi), that existed before 1987.

Corruption in Bulgaria

Widespread corruption
Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue.
Despite that, Bulgaria has "systematically demonstrated very high levels of perception of corruption."

Bulgarians

Bulgarianethnic BulgarianBulgaria
The Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.

Varna culture

Varna
The Copper Age Varna culture (fifth millennium BC) is credited with inventing gold metallurgy.
The Varna culture belongs to the later Neolithic of northeastern Bulgaria, dated ca. 4400-4100 BC. It is contemporary and closely related with Gumelnița in southern Rumania, often considered as local variants.

Southeast Europe

southeastern Europesouth-eastern EuropeSoutheastern
Bulgaria (България, tr. '), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr. ', ), is a country in Southeast Europe.
Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

Odrysian kingdom

OdrysianThraceOdrysae
The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, and the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD. It consisted mainly of present-day Bulgaria, spreading to parts of Southeastern Romania (Northern Dobruja), parts of Northern Greece and parts of modern-day European Turkey.

Christianization of Bulgaria

adoption of ChristianityBulgaria, Christianization ofChristianization
The conversion was followed by a Byzantine recognition of the Bulgarian church and the adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet, developed in the capital, Preslav.
The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process by which 9th-century medieval Bulgaria converted to Christianity.

Simeon I of Bulgaria

Simeon ISimeonSimeon the Great
A golden age began during the 34-year rule of Simeon the Great, who oversaw the largest territorial expansion of the state.
Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927, during the First Bulgarian Empire.

Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Bulgarian OrthodoxBulgarianBulgaria
The conversion was followed by a Byzantine recognition of the Bulgarian church and the adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet, developed in the capital, Preslav.
It is the oldest Slavic Orthodox Church with some 6 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria and between 1.5 and 2.0 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and Asia.

Unitary state

Unitaryunitary republicunitary government
Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.
🇧🇬 Bulgaria

Thracians

Thracianancient ThraceThrace
The Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians, Celts and ancient Macedonians; stability came when the Roman Empire conquered the region in AD 45. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century.
Darius' army subjugated several Thracian peoples at the same time, and virtually all other regions that touch the European part of the Black Sea, including parts of present-day Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, before it returned to Asia Minor.