Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
Odrysian golden wreath in the National History Museum
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Knyaz Boris I meeting the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
The walls of Tsarevets fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the second empire
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 marked the end of medieval Bulgarian statehood.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
The Russo-Bulgarian defence of Shipka Pass in 1877
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Borders of Bulgaria according to the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Tsar Boris III
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
Georgi Dimitrov, leader of the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1946 to 1949
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
Topography of Bulgaria
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
The Pirin mountain range
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
Lacerta viridis in Ropotamo, one of Bulgaria's 16 biosphere reserves
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Independence Square in Sofia: The headquarters of the Presidency (right), the National Assembly (centre) and the Council of Ministers (left).
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Mikoyan MiG-29 jet fighters of the Bulgarian Air Force
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Historical development of GDP per capita
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Economic growth (green) and unemployment (blue) statistics since 2001
Topographic map of Turkey
Tree map of Bulgarian exports in 2016
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
The launch of BulgariaSat-1 by SpaceX
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Trakia motorway
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Population trend since 1960
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
The Rectorate of Sofia University
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Kuker in Lesichovo
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
Christo's Mastaba in Hyde Park, London
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Grigor Dimitrov at the 2015 Italian Open
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest.

- Turkey

It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.

- Bulgaria

16 related topics

Alpha

Greece

Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

The entrance of the Treasury of Atreus (13th BC) in Mycenae
Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (750–550 BC)
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens, icon of classical Greece.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Map of Alexander's short-lived empire (334–323 BC). After his death the lands were divided between the Diadochi
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 100 BC) is considered to be the first known mechanical analog computer (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
A view from the ancient royal Macedonian tombs in Vergina
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built in 161 AD
Dome of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki (8th century), one of the 15 UNESCO's Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of the city
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, originally built in the late 7th century as a Byzantine citadel and beginning from 1309 used by the Knights Hospitaller as an administrative centre
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire after the death of Basil II in 1025
The Byzantine castle of Angelokastro successfully repulsed the Ottomans during the First Great Siege of Corfu in 1537, the siege of 1571, and the Second Great Siege of Corfu in 1716, causing them to abandon their plans to conquer Corfu.
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, one of the best-known Ottoman structures remaining in Greece.
The sortie (exodus) of Messolonghi, depicting the Third Siege of Missolonghi, painted by Theodoros Vryzakis.
The Battle of Navarino in 1827 secured Greek independence.
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, painted by Peter von Hess in 1839.
The territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1947.
Hellenic Army formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris, July 1919.
Map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos as its supervising genius.
The Axis occupation of Greece.
People in Athens celebrate the liberation from the Axis powers, October 1944. Postwar Greece would soon experience a civil war and political polarization.
Signing at Zappeion by Constantine Karamanlis of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.
Navagio (shipwreck) bay, Zakynthos island
The Greek mainland and several small islands seen from Nydri, Lefkada
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and mythical abode of the Gods of Olympus
The building of the Hellenic Parliament (Old Royal Palace) in central Athens.
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first governor, founder of the modern Greek State, and distinguished European diplomat
Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister since 2019
Representation through: 
 embassy
 embassy in another country
 general consulate
 no representation
 Greece
GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Greece exports, 2019
Greece's debt percentage since 1977, compared to the average of the Eurozone
Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos
Solar-power generation potential in Greece
Greek companies control 16.2% of the world's total merchant fleet making it the largest in the world. They are ranked in the top 5 for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers.
Santorini, a popular tourist destination, is ranked as the world's top island in many travel magazines and sites.
The Rio–Antirrio bridge connects mainland Greece to the Peloponnese.
Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum
Georgios Papanikolaou, a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection
Hermoupolis, on the island of Syros, is the capital of the Cyclades.
Population pyramid of Greece in 2017
Our Lady of Tinos
Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Today, Greek is the dominant language throughout the country.
A map of the fifty countries with the largest Greek diaspora communities.
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Ionian Academy in Corfu, the first academic institution of modern Greece.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, still used for theatrical plays.
Close-up of the Charioteer of Delphi, a celebrated statue from the 5th century BC.
Towerhouses of Vatheia in Mani peninsula
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece
Parnassos Literary Society, painted by Georgios Roilos (Kostis Palamas is at the center)
A statue of Plato in Athens.
Cretan dancers of traditional folk music
Rebetes in Karaiskaki, Piraeus (1933). Left Markos Vamvakaris with bouzouki.
Mikis Theodorakis was one of the most popular and significant Greek composers
A Greek salad, with feta and olives.
Theodoros Angelopoulos, winner of the Palme d'Or in 1998, notable director in the history of the European cinema
Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon; 1896 Summer Olympics.
Angelos Charisteas scoring Greece's winning goal in the UEFA Euro 2004 Final
The Greek national basketball team in 2008. Twice European champions (1987 and 2005) and second in the world in 2006
Procession in honor of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (15 August)

Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast.

Map of Constantinople, corresponding to the modern-day Fatih district of İstanbul

Constantinople

The capital of the Roman Empire, and later, the Eastern Roman Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922).

The capital of the Roman Empire, and later, the Eastern Roman Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922).

Map of Constantinople, corresponding to the modern-day Fatih district of İstanbul
Aerial view of Byzantine Constantinople and the Propontis (Sea of Marmara).
Hagia Sophia built in AD 537, during the reign of Justinian
The Column of Constantine, built by Constantine I in 330 to commemorate the establishment of Constantinople as the new capital of the Roman Empire.
This huge keystone found in Çemberlitaş, Fatih might have belonged to a triumphal arch at the Forum of Constantine built by Constantine I.
Obelisk of Theodosius is the Ancient Egyptian obelisk of Egyptian King Thutmose III re-erected in the Hippodrome of Constantinople by the Roman emperor Theodosius I in the 4th century AD.
The four bronze horses that used to be in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, today in Venice
Pammakaristos Church, also known as the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos (Greek: Θεοτόκος ἡ Παμμακάριστος, "All-Blessed Mother of God"), is one of the most famous Greek Orthodox Byzantine churches in Istanbul
A simple cross: example of iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul
Emperor Constantine I presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and Christ Child in this church mosaic. Hagia Sophia, c. 1000.
Another coin struck by Constantine I in 330–333 to commemorate the foundation of Constantinople and to also reaffirm Rome as the traditional centre of the Roman Empire.
Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople.
Hagia Irene is a Greek Eastern Orthodox Church located in the outer courtyard of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. It is one of the few churches in Istanbul that has not been converted into a mosque
Theodosius I was the last Roman emperor who ruled over an undivided empire (detail from the Obelisk at the Hippodrome of Constantinople).
Mosaics of the Great Palace of Constantinople, now in Great Palace Mosaic Museum in Istanbul
Map of Constantinople (1422) by Florentine cartographer Cristoforo Buondelmonti is the oldest surviving map of the city, and the only one that predates the Turkish conquest of the city in 1453.
The current Hagia Sophia was commissioned by Emperor Justinian I after the previous one was destroyed in the Nika riots of 532. It was converted into a mosque in 1453 when the Ottoman Empire commenced and was a museum from 1935 to 2020.
Aqueduct of Valens completed by Roman emperor Valens in the late 4th century AD.
Restored section of the fortifications (Theodosian Walls) that protected Constantinople during the medieval period.
Chora Church medieval Byzantine Greek Orthodox church preserved as the Chora Museum in the Edirnekapı neighborhood of Istanbul.
Emperor Leo VI (886–912) adoring Jesus Christ. Mosaic above the Imperial Gate in the Hagia Sophia.
One of the most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople – the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery, Christ being flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist; circa 1261
Mosaic of Jesus in Pammakaristos Church, Istanbul.
A fragment of the Milion (Greek: Μίλ(λ)ιον), a mile-marker monument
The Byzantine Empire under Manuel I, c. 1180.
12th century mosaic from the upper gallery of the Hagia Sophia, Constantinople. Emperor John II (1118–1143) is shown on the left, with the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus in the centre, and John's consort Empress Irene on the right.
Pammakaristos Church mosaic of Saint Anthony, the desert Father
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix, 1840.
The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond, and the Despotate of Epirus. The borders are very uncertain.
Dome of the Pammakaristos Church, Istanbul
The final siege of Constantinople, contemporary 15th-century French miniature.
Mehmed the Conqueror enters Constantinople, painting by Fausto Zonaro.
Galata Tower, the Romanesque style tower was built as Christea Turris (Tower of Christ) in 1348 during an expansion of the Genoese colony in Constantinople
Eagle and Snake, 6th century mosaic flooring Constantinople, Grand Imperial Palace.
Constantinople apple quinces
Columns of the Hagia Sophia, currently a Mosque
Page depicting Constantinople in the Nuremberg Chronicle published in 1493, forty years after the city's fall to the Muslims.
Constantinople's monumental center.

Officially renamed Istanbul in 1930, the city is today the largest city and financial centre of the Republic of Turkey (1923–present).

In the second siege, the second ruler of Bulgaria, Khan Tervel, rendered decisive help.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"

Turkish language

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers.

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"
The 15th century Book of Dede Korkut
An advertisement by the IKEA branch in Berlin written in the German and Turkish languages.
Map of the main subgroups of Turkish dialects across Southeast Europe and the Middle East.
Vowels of Turkish. From
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Istanbul Marathon in 2006)
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
A Turkish computer keyboard with Q (QWERTY) layout.

It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers exist in Iraq, Syria, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4390312 |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.

In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term Türki refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (Türki Cumhuriyetler or Türk Cumhuriyetleri).

Additionally, Turkic people are found within Crimea, Altishahr region of western China, northern Iraq, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, Cyprus, and the Balkans: Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and former Yugoslavia.

In this 15th-century French miniature depicting the Battle of Manzikert, the combatants are clad in contemporary Western European armour.

Battle of Manzikert

In this 15th-century French miniature depicting the Battle of Manzikert, the combatants are clad in contemporary Western European armour.
Alp Arslan led the Seljuq Turks to victory against the Byzantine annexation of Manzikert in 1071
Having made peace with the Byzantines, the Seljuks intended to attack Egypt, until Alp Arslan learned in Aleppo of the Byzantine advance. He returned north and met the Byzantines north of Lake Van.
Byzantine territory (purple), Byzantine attacks (red) and Seljuk attacks (green)
Alp Arslan humiliating Emperor Romanos IV. From a 15th-century illustrated French translation of Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium.
The Turks did not move into Anatolia until after Alp Arslan's death in 1072.
Settlements and regions affected during the first wave of Turkish invasions in Asia Minor (until 1204).
Çamlıca Mosque, Istanbul

The Battle of Manzikert or Battle of Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).

Finally, the large and diverse host included 500 Frankish and Norman mercenaries under Roussel de Bailleul, some Turkic (Uz and Pecheneg) and Bulgarian mercenaries, infantry under the Duke of Antioch, a contingent of Georgian and Armenian troops and some (but not all) of the Varangian Guard to total around 40,000 men.

Flag

Council of Europe

International organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

International organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

Flag
Flag
Plaque commemorating the first session of the Council of Europe Assembly at Strasbourg University
Session of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly in the former House of Europe in Strasbourg in 1967. Willy Brandt, German Minister for Foreign Affairs, is speaking.
Winston Churchill's inaugural speech of the Council of Europe in The Hague
Council's Parliamentary Assembly hemicycle
European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines.
Aerial shot of the Palais de l'Europe in Strasbourg
Council of Europe's Agora building

It was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, though Turkey and Greece joined three months later.

The Council of Europe has offices in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, and Ukraine; information offices in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine; and a projects office in Turkey.

Flag

NATO

Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Flag
Flag
West Germany joined NATO in 1955, which led to the formation of the rival Warsaw Pact during the Cold War.
The Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked a turning point in NATO's role in Europe, and a section of the wall is now displayed outside NATO Headquarters.
NATO planes engaging in aerial bombardments during Operation Deliberate Force after the Srebrenica massacre
German KFOR soldiers on patrol in southern Kosovo in 1999
KFOR-MSU Carabinieri Patrols in front of the Ibar Bridge in Mitrovica, Kosovo, 2019
The September 11 attacks in the United States caused NATO to invoke its collective defence article for the first time.
General Austin S. Miller (right) became commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan in September 2018 and oversaw the withdrawal until July 2021.
USS Farragut (DDG-99) destroying a Somali pirate skiff in March 2010
Libyan Army Palmaria howitzers destroyed by the French Air Force near Benghazi in March 2011
Partnership for Peace conducts multinational military exercises like Cooperative Archer, which took place in Tbilisi in July 2007 with 500 servicemen from four NATO members, eight PfP members, and Jordan, a Mediterranean Dialogue participant.
The North Atlantic Council convening in 2010 with a defence/foreign minister configuration
Protestors at a February 2022 rally against Russia's invasion of Ukraine march past the statue of Tsar Alexander II in Senate Square in Helsinki

That year also saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization.

These plans governed the addition of new alliance members: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia in 2004, Albania and Croatia in 2009, Montenegro in 2017, and North Macedonia in 2020.

The modern boundaries of Thrace in Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.

Thrace

The modern boundaries of Thrace in Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
The physical–geographical boundaries of Thrace: the Balkan Mountains, the Rhodope Mountains and the Bosporus. The Rhodope mountain range is highlighted.
The Roman province of Thrace
The Byzantine thema of Thrace.
Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names Thrace and Europe.
Thrace and the Thracian Odrysian Kingdom under Sitalces c. 431–424 BC, showing the territories of several Thracian tribes.
Thrace in the Odrysian Kingdom showing several Thracian tribes. Sapeia was Northern Thrace and Asteia was Southern Thrace.
Skudrian (Thracian) soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BC. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak.
Flag of rebels of Thrace during the Greek War of Independence.
Proposal to cede East Thrace to Greece during World War I. This photocopy came from a larger color map.

Thrace (Θράκη; Тракия; Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Unitary state

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

The pathway of regional integration or separation

🇧🇬 Bulgaria

🇹🇷 Turkey

Selimiye Mosque exterior. Sinan the Architect called the Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul his apprentice work, the Süleymaniye his journeyman’s work, and the Selimiye his masterpiece. He was 85 when he finished it.

Edirne

Selimiye Mosque exterior. Sinan the Architect called the Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul his apprentice work, the Süleymaniye his journeyman’s work, and the Selimiye his masterpiece. He was 85 when he finished it.
Historical image of Cihannüma Kasrı (Panoramic Pavilion), part of Edirne Palace complex
Edirne in the first quarter of the 20th century.
An example of Ottoman architecture in Edirne
Grand Synagogue of Edirne
Administrative building backside of the Grand Synagogue of Edirne
Treaty of Lausanne Monument and Museum in Edirne
Oil-wrestling at Kırkpınar
Ali Paşa Çarşısı (Ali Pasha Bazaar).
Main building of Trakya University
Faculty of Fine Arts building of Trakya University, originally built as Karaağaç railway station.
Interior view of the Grand Synagogue of Edirne
Interior view of the Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
View of the Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
View of the Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
A house in Edirne from the Ottoman period
Interior of Eski Cami
A historic elementary school building
Meriç Bridge
Edirne Main Street
IV.Mehmet Hunting Kiosk
Sts. Constantine and Helena Bulgarian Church
Fatih Bridge over the Tunca River, with the Kasr-ı Adalet (Justice Pavilion) tower seen in the background
Ghazi Mihal Mosque
Part of Muradiye Mosque mihrab
Muradiye Mosque front
A Roman Tower still standing

Edirne, formerly known as Adrianople or Hadrianopolis, is a city in Turkey, in the northwestern part of the province of Edirne and Eastern Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria (3.24 miles or 5.22 kilometers from the Greek border at the closest point).

The Great Powers–Britain, Italy, France, and Russia–attempted to coerce the Ottoman Empire into ceding Adrianople to Bulgaria during the temporary winter truce of the First Balkan War.