Bulgaria

BULBulgarianRepublic of BulgariaBulgaryBGBGRBulgarian stateWestern BulgariaBugarskaBulgar state
Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe.wikipedia
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Uprising of Peter Delyan

uprising of Petar DelyanBulgarian uprisingPeter Delyan, Uprising of
Byzantine domestic policies changed after Basil's death and a series of unsuccessful rebellions broke out, the largest being led by Peter Delyan.
The Uprising of Peter Delyan, which took place in 1040–1041, was a major Bulgarian rebellion against the Byzantine Empire in the Theme of Bulgaria.

Asen dynasty

AsenHouse of AsenAssan
In 1185 Asen dynasty nobles Ivan Asen I and Peter IV organized a major uprising and succeeded in re-establishing the Bulgarian state.
The Asen dynasty (Асеневци, Asenevtsi) founded and ruled a medieval Bulgarian state, called in modern historiography the Second Bulgarian Empire, between 1187 and 1256.

Veliko Tarnovo

TarnovoVeliko TurnovoTărnovo
Ivan Asen and Peter laid the foundations of the Second Bulgarian Empire with its capital at Tarnovo.
Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново, ; "Great Tarnovo") is a town in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.

Battle of Pliska

battle of the Varbitsa PassPliska, Battle ofBattle of Varbitsa Pass
Krum introduced a written code of law and checked a major Byzantine incursion at the Battle of Pliska, in which Byzantine emperor Nicephorus I was killed.
The Battle of Pliska or Battle of Vărbitsa Pass was a series of battles between troops, gathered from all parts of the Byzantine Empire, led by the Emperor Nicephorus I Genik, and Bulgaria, governed by Khan Krum.

Karanovo culture

Karanovo GumelniţaGumelniţa culture
One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC.
62nd to 55th centuries BC) named after the Bulgarian village of Karanovo, Sliven Province (Караново, Sliven Province 42.51139°N, 25.915°W).

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; it is a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and has taken a seat on the UN Security Council three times.
In 2007, Bulgaria and Romania became EU members.

Kaloyan of Bulgaria

KaloyanKaloyan, Tsar of BulgariaKalojan
Kaloyan, the third of the Asen monarchs, extended his dominion to Belgrade and Ohrid.
undefined 1170 – October 1207) was emperor (or tsar) of Bulgaria from 1196 to 1207.

Veliki Preslav

PreslavGreat PreslavPreslav, Bulgaria
The conversion was followed by a Byzantine recognition of the Bulgarian church and the adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet, developed in the capital, Preslav.
The ruins of the city are situated in modern northeastern Bulgaria, some 20 kilometres southwest of the regional capital of Shumen, and are currently a national archaeological reserve.

Shumen

ShumlaŞumnuShoumen
Sultan Murad I took Adrianople from the Byzantines in 1362; Sofia fell in 1382, followed by Shumen in 1388.
Shumen (Шумен, also romanized as Shoumen or Šumen) is the tenth largest city in Bulgaria and the administrative and economic capital of Shumen Province.

Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidency
Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.

Edirne

AdrianopleOdrinAdrianopolis
Sultan Murad I took Adrianople from the Byzantines in 1362; Sofia fell in 1382, followed by Shumen in 1388.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis; ; Αδριανούπολη; Одрин; founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

Catholic Church in Bulgaria

Roman Catholicism in BulgariaBulgarian CatholicsRoman Catholic
The clergy remaining in some isolated monasteries kept their ethnic identity alive, enabling its survival in remote rural areas, and in the militant Catholic community in the northwest of the country.
The Catholic Church is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria, after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Protestantism.

First Tarnovo Uprising

Bulgarian rebels1598Bulgarian Uprising of 1598
The Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in 1598, then a second one in 1686, the Chiprovtsi Uprising in 1688 and finally Karposh's Rebellion in 1689.
The First Tarnovo uprising (Първо търновско въстание, Parvo tarnovsko vastanie) was a Bulgarian uprising against the Ottoman rule based in the former Bulgarian capital, Tarnovo, that broke out in 1598 and was severely crushed by the Ottoman authorities.

Chiprovtsi uprising

uprising
The Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in 1598, then a second one in 1686, the Chiprovtsi Uprising in 1688 and finally Karposh's Rebellion in 1689.
The Chiprovtsi uprising (Чипровско въстание, Chiprovsko vastanie) was an uprising against Ottoman rule organized in northwestern Bulgaria by Roman Catholic Bulgarians, but also involving many Eastern Orthodox Christians.

Metallurgy

metallurgistmetallurgicalMetallurgical Engineering
The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless.
The Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria, is a burial site in the western industrial zone of Varna (approximately 4 km from the city centre), internationally considered one of the key archaeological sites in world prehistory.

Turkic peoples

TurkicTurksTurkish
The name Bulgaria is derived from the Bulgars, a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country.
In addition, there are several communities found in Iraq, Georgia, Bulgaria, the Republic of North Macedonia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and western Mongolia.

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
The Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC.
Darius' army subjugated several Thracian peoples, and virtually all other regions that touch the European part of the Black Sea, such as parts of nowadays Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, before it returned to Asia Minor.

Khan (title)

KhanKhansKhan Bahadur
Not long after the Slavic incursion, Moesia was once again invaded, this time by the Bulgars under Khan Asparukh.
Among the best known Bulgar khans were: Khan Kubrat, founder of Great Bulgaria; Khan Asparukh, founder of Danubian Bulgaria (today's Bulgaria); Khan Tervel, who defeated the Arab invaders in 718 Siege of Constantinople (718), thus stopped the Arab invasion in Southeast Europe; Khan Krum, "the Terrible".

Second Tarnovo Uprising

1686a second one in 1686second uprising in Tarnovo
The Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in 1598, then a second one in 1686, the Chiprovtsi Uprising in 1688 and finally Karposh's Rebellion in 1689.
The Second Tarnovo uprising (Второ търновско въстание, Vtoro tarnovsko vastanie), according to a unique Russian source published in 1847, is thought to be a Bulgarian uprising against Ottoman rule based in the former Bulgarian capital, Tarnovo, that broke out in 1686 and was severely crushed by the Ottoman authorities.

Thrace

ThracianThraciansTrakya
It was to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality spanning Moesia, Macedonia and Thrace, roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire, and this day is now a public holiday called National Liberation Day.
Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

Macedonia (region)

Macedoniaregion of MacedoniaMacedonian
It was to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality spanning Moesia, Macedonia and Thrace, roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire, and this day is now a public holiday called National Liberation Day.
Today the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: Greece, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, and Kosovo.

Bulgarian Volunteer Corps

opalchentsiBulgarian volunteersBulgarian voluntary army units
In 1877 Russia declared war on the Ottomans and defeated them with the help of Bulgarian rebels, particularly during the crucial Battle of Shipka Pass which secured Russian control over the main road to Constantinople.
Opalchentsi were Bulgarian voluntary army units, who took part in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

Peter Delyan

Peter II DelyanPeter IIPeter (II) Delyan of Bulgaria
Byzantine domestic policies changed after Basil's death and a series of unsuccessful rebellions broke out, the largest being led by Peter Delyan.
After Ivan Vladislav's murder of Gavril Radomir in 1015 and the conquest of Bulgaria by the Byzantine Empire in 1018, Delyan was taken captive to Constantinople and became a servant of an unidentified member of the Byzantine aristocracy.

Public holidays in Bulgaria

Bulgarian Education and Culture and Slavonic Literature DayBulgariaIndependence Day
It was to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality spanning Moesia, Macedonia and Thrace, roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire, and this day is now a public holiday called National Liberation Day.
The official public holidays in Bulgaria are listed in the table below.

Golden Horde

Kipchak KhanateUlus of JochiHorde
Internal conflicts and incessant Byzantine and Hungarian attacks followed, enabling the Mongols to establish suzerainty over the weakened Bulgarian state.
In 1242, after retreating through Hungary, destroying Pest in the process, and subjugating Bulgaria, Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of the Volga River, on the site of the Khazar capital of Atil.