A report on Bulgarian language and Bulgarians

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia (1776–1783)
Cyrillic
Cyrillic alphabet of the medieval Old Bulgarian language
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Map of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913). The Ottomans required a threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population to include a region into this jurisdiction.
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Bulgarian peach kompot – non alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking fruit
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Kukeri from the area of Burgas
Bulgarian cursive alphabet
Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from Gabrа, Sofia Province
Map of A. Scobel, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, 1908
Distribution of the Balkan peoples in 1911, Encyclopædia Britannica
Ethnic groups in the Balkans and Asia Minor by William R. Shepherd, 1911
Distribution of European peoples in 1914 according to L. Ravenstein
Swiss ethnographic map of Europe published in 1918 by Juozas Gabrys
Percentage of Pomaks by first language according to the 1965 Census excluding Bulgarian
Distribution of Bulgarians in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of Bulgarians by first language in Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in Bulgaria according to the 2011 census
Distribution of Bulgarians in Romania according to the 2002 census
Distribution of Bulgarians in Moldova according to the 2004 census
Map of the Bulgarian diaspora in the world (includes people with Bulgarian ancestry or citizenship). 
Bulgaria
+ 100,000
+ 10,000
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It is the language of the Bulgarians.

- Bulgarian language

The establishment of a new state molded the various Slav, Bulgar and earlier or later populations into the "Bulgarian people" of the First Bulgarian Empire speaking a South Slavic language.

- Bulgarians
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

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Bulgaria

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Odrysian golden wreath in the National History Museum
Knyaz Boris I meeting the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius.
The walls of Tsarevets fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the second empire
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 marked the end of medieval Bulgarian statehood.
The Russo-Bulgarian defence of Shipka Pass in 1877
Borders of Bulgaria according to the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
Tsar Boris III
Georgi Dimitrov, leader of the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1946 to 1949
Topography of Bulgaria
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
The Pirin mountain range
Lacerta viridis in Ropotamo, one of Bulgaria's 16 biosphere reserves
Independence Square in Sofia: The headquarters of the Presidency (right), the National Assembly (centre) and the Council of Ministers (left).
Mikoyan MiG-29 jet fighters of the Bulgarian Air Force
Historical development of GDP per capita
Economic growth (green) and unemployment (blue) statistics since 2001
Tree map of Bulgarian exports in 2016
The launch of BulgariaSat-1 by SpaceX
Trakia motorway
Population trend since 1960
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
The Rectorate of Sofia University
Kuker in Lesichovo
Christo's Mastaba in Hyde Park, London
Grigor Dimitrov at the 2015 Italian Open
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia

The Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless.

Bulgarian is the only language with official status and native for % of the population.

Serbia

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Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; as many as 18 Roman emperors were born in modern-day Serbia
The Serbian Empire, a medieval Serbian state that emerged from the Kingdom of Serbia. It was established in 1346 by Dušan the Mighty
The Battle of Kosovo (1389) is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition and national identity.
The Great Migrations of the Serbs, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević
Great Serbian Retreat in 1915 led by Peter I of Serbia. As the part of Entente Powers during WW I, Serbia lost about 850,000 people, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Great Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina region with the Kingdom of Serbia in Novi Sad in 1918
A group of children wait in line at an unidentified Croatian Ustaše concentration camp in Croatia, for Serbs and Jews during WWII.
A monument commemorating the victims of Sajmište concentration camp, a part of the Holocaust in German-occupied Serbia and genocide of Serbs in Independent State of Croatia.
The principle of non-alignment was the core of Yugoslav and later Serbian diplomacy. The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in September 1961
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and territories of Serb breakaway states Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina during the Yugoslav wars
Serbian and other children refugees of the Kosovo War. The war ended with NATO bombing which remains a controversial topic.
Topographic map of Serbia including Kosovo
The Iron Gates, Đerdap National Park.
Picea omorika is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Tara mountain in western Serbia.
Uvac Gorge, one of the last remaining habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe.
The Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world.
Map of Serbian language - official (dark blue) or recognized as minority language (light blue).
Building of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade
NIS headquarters in Novi Sad
Serbia is among the world's largest producer of plums as of 2018; plum is considered the national fruit of Serbia.
Serbia Product Exports map 2019
The Fiat 500L is manufactured in the FCA plant in Kragujevac.
Đerdap 1 Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power stations in Europe
Serbian motorway network:
Air Serbia's airplane taking off from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Astrophysicist Milutin Milanković was an important climate science theorist
Nikola Tesla contributed to the design of the modern AC electricity supply system.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1841
The National Museum of Serbia.
Mileševa monastery's White Angel fresco (1235) was in the first Europe-to-America satellite broadcast.
Performance artist Marina Abramović
Miroslav's Gospel (1186) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript on parchment listed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.
Ivo Andrić, Yugoslav writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in his home in Belgrade
Filip Višnjić sings to the gusle by Sreten Stojanović
Exit Festival in Novi Sad, proclaimed as the Best Major European festival at the EU Festival Awards
Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
A Serbian Christmas meal with roast pork, Russian salad and red wine.
Gibanica, a Serbian pastry usually made with cottage cheese and eggs.
Tennis player Novak Djokovic, he has won 20 Grand Slam men's singles titles, including a record nine Australian Open titles.
Nikola Jokić, Two-time NBA MVP and four-time NBA All-Star. Serbia is one of the countries with the largest number of NBA players and with the greatest success in FIBA international competitions.
Serbia men's national water polo team held Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship, World Cup and World League titles simultaneously in period from 2014 to 2016.
Mothers with children in the Croatian Ustaše Stara Gradiška concentration camp, a camp for Serbs and Jews in the Independent State of Croatia during WWII.

Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians.

Recognised minority languages are: Hungarian, Bosnian, Slovak, Croatian, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Rusyn, and Macedonian.

Sofia

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Capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

Capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

The first seal of the city from 1878 which calls it Sredets
O: head of river-god Strymon
R: trident 
This coin imitates Macedonian issue from 187 to 168 BC. It was struck by Serdi tribe as their own currency
The eastern gate of Serdica in the "Complex Ancient Serdica"
Dated from the early 4th century, the Church of Saint George is the oldest standing edifice in Sofia
The 13th century lord of Sredets Kaloyan and his wife Desislava, Boyana Church
Sofia in mid-19th-century
The allied bombing of Sofia in World War II in 1944
A view over central Sofia, with the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the foreground and Vitosha in the distance
Interior of the ancient Saint Sofia Church.
Neoclassical architecture, Poligrafia office center.
Borisova gradina.
A map of the 24 districts of Sofia
The National Assembly building.
The Council of Ministers (left), Presidency (right) and the former Communist Party House.
Ivan Vazov National Theatre
The Museum of Contemporary Art
Interior of the medieval Boyana Church
The Banya Bashi Mosque an example of Ottoman architecture.
Vitosha Boulevard, the main shopping street in the city
Armeets Arena during the ATP Sofia Open
Students of the National Academy of Arts (circa 1952–53). People aged 20–25 years have been the most numerous group in the city since the process of Bulgarian urbanisation
Business Park Sofia
A Siemens Desiro train of the Bulgarian State Railways at the Central Railway Station
Cherni Vrah Boulevard
The Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy of Sofia University

Amongst others, the population consisted of Muslims, Bulgarian and Greek speaking Orthodox Christians, Armenians, Georgians, Catholic Ragusans, Jews (Romaniote, Ashkenazi and Sephardi), and Romani people.

The first census carried out in February 1878 by the Russian Army recorded a population of 11,694 inhabitants including 6,560 Bulgarians, 3,538 Jews, 839 Turks and 737 Romani.

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world

Macedonians (ethnic group)

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Macedonians (Македонци) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe.

Macedonians (Македонци) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe.

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world
Georgi Pulevski is the first known person, who in 1875 put forward the idea on the existence of a separate (Slavic) Macedonian language and ethnicity.
Krste Misirkov is the first person who in 1903 attempted to codify a standard Macedonian language and appealed for eventual recognition of a separate Macedonian nation when the necessary historical circumstances would arise.
Dimitar Vlahov played a crucial role for the adaptation of the Resolution of the Comintern on the Macedonian question that first of all recognized the existence of a separate Macedonian nation in 1934.
Metodija Andonov-Čento was the first president of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia after the Second World War.
Kiro Gligorov was the first president of the Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia) after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.
Ottoman architecture in Ohrid.
Macedonian girls in traditional folk costumes.
One of the well-known monasteries – St. Panteleimon in Ohrid.
Tavče Gravče, the national dish of Macedonians.
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (1992–1995) depicting the Vergina Sun
Macedonians in North Macedonia, according to the 2002 census
Concentration of Macedonians in Serbia
Regions where Macedonians live within Albania
Macedonian Muslims in North Macedonia
Austrian ethnographic map of the vilayets of Kosovo, Saloniki, Scutari, Janina and Monastir, ca. 1900.
Ethnographic map of the Balkans from the Serbian author Jovan Cvijic (1918)
Greek map by Georgios Sotiriadis submitted to the Paris Peace Conference (1919)
thumb|Ethnographic map of the Balkans in the New Larned History (1922)

Throughout the Middle Ages and Ottoman rule up until the early 20th century the Slavic-speaking population majority in the region of Macedonia were more commonly referred to (both by themselves and outsiders) as Bulgarians.

The closest relative of Macedonian is Bulgarian, followed by Serbo-Croatian.

Second Bulgarian Empire

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Second Bulgarian Empire under Ivan Asen II
Second Bulgarian Empire under Ivan Asen II
The Church of St Demetrius in Tarnovo, built by Asen and Peter in the beginning of the uprising
Second Bulgarian Empire under Ivan Asen II
A map of the Bulgarian Empire, showing territorial extent and the campaigns between 1185 and 1197
The Church of the Holy Forty Martyrs where Kaloyan was buried.
A map showing the greatest territorial extension of the Second Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Ivan Asen II (1218–1241)
Emperor Constantine Tikh and his first wife Irene, fresco from the Boyana Church
Bulgaria under Theodore Svetoslav (1300-1322)
The fortress of Baba Vida in Vidin
Second Bulgarian Empire, 1331-71
The defeat of the anti-Ottoman coalition in the battle of Nicopolis in 1396 was the final blow leading to the fall of the Bulgarian Empire.
The Medieval Bulgarian royal charters, such as the Rila Charter of Ivan Shishman issued in 1378, are an important source on medieval Bulgarian society and administrative posts.
Panoramic view of Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Aerial view of the Shumen fortress, an important stronghold in eastern Bulgaria
A silver vessel from the 14th century Nikopol treasure
Economy of the Second Bulgarian Empire
Coin depicting Ivan Alexander with one of his sons, co-emperor Michael Asen IV (right)
The Patriarchal Cathedral of the Holy Ascension of God in Tarnovo was the seat of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church during the Second Empire. It was part of a larger complex which accommodated the Patriarch.
A depiction of emperor Ivan Alexander, patron of Hesychasm
The Church of the Holy Mother of God in Donja Kamenica
Culture of the Second Bulgarian Empire
The ruins of a noble family's house in Tarnovo
A depiction of Kaloyan and Desislava, ktitors of the Boyana Church
Frescos in the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo
A page of the 14th century Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander
A page of the 14th century Bulgarian translation of the Manasses Chronicle
Pontic littoral's city and flags of Second Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian rulers Shishman) on vexilographic maps by the end of the 13th – 17th centuries

The Second Bulgarian Empire (Middle Bulgarian: Ц(а)рьство бл(ъ)гарское; Modern Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Balgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.

Old Church Slavonic

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The first Slavic literary language.

The first Slavic literary language.

Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
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A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

The term Old Bulgarian (старобългарски, Altbulgarisch) is the only designation used by Bulgarian-language writers.

Exiled students of the two apostles, mainly Bulgarians (including Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum), then brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire.

IMRO revolutionaries in Klisoura of Kastoria during the Ilinden Uprising of 1903.

Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia

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Slavic speakers are a linguistic minority population in the northern Greek region of Macedonia, who are mostly concentrated in certain parts of the peripheries of West and Central Macedonia, adjacent to the territory of the state of North Macedonia.

Slavic speakers are a linguistic minority population in the northern Greek region of Macedonia, who are mostly concentrated in certain parts of the peripheries of West and Central Macedonia, adjacent to the territory of the state of North Macedonia.

IMRO revolutionaries in Klisoura of Kastoria during the Ilinden Uprising of 1903.
Refugee children from Gorno Brodi, Serres resettled in Peshtera after the Second Balkan War, 1913
Triple occupation of Greece.
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Principal areas with presence of Slavic speakers in Greece (pink and purple), along with other minority language communities. Greek is today spoken as the dominant language throughout the country.
Ethnic Macedonian dancing group from Greece, Belomorci, performing the song "Egejska Maka".
Dialectic divisions of Macedonian within Greece.
French ethnographic map of the Balkans by Ami Boue, 1847.
The nationalities of southeastern Europe according to Pallas Nagy Lexikona, 1897.
The regions of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by ethnic Bulgarians in 1912, according to the Bulgarian point of view.
Greek ethnographic map from 1918, showing the Macedonian Slavs as a separate people.
Bulgarian Exarchate seal of the Voden (Edessa) municipality, 1870.
Pupils of the Greek school of Zoupanishta, near Kastoria.
Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki celebrating Saints Cyril and Methodius Day, c. 1900.
The title page of the Konikovo Gospel, printed in 1852.

However, differences soon emerged between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria concerning the national character of the Macedonian Slavs – whereas Bulgarians considered them to be an offshoot of the Bulgarians, Yugoslavia regarded them as an independent nation which had nothing to do whatsoever with the Bulgarians.

The Slavic dialects spoken across Northern Greece belong to the eastern group of South Slavic, comprising Bulgarian and Macedonian, and share all the characteristics that set this group apart from other Slavic languages: existence of a definite article, lack of cases, lack of a verb infinitive, comparative forms of adjectives formed with the prefix по-, future tense formed by the present form of the verb preceded by ще/ќе, and existence of a renarrative mood.

Bulgarian-inhabited areas in Budjak (purple)

Bessarabian Bulgarians

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Bulgarian-inhabited areas in Budjak (purple)
Bulgarian-inhabited areas in Moldova (pink)
The welcome sign of Tvardița, Moldova, written mostly in Bulgarian

The Bessarabian Bulgarians (бесарабски българи, besarabski bǎlgari, bulgari basarabeni, Болгари Бессарабії, bolháry bessarabiyi) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova.

53,178 or 80.99% of ethnic Bulgarians declared Bulgarian language as native (69.23% in urban areas, and 90.55% in rural ones), 2,766 or 4.21% of them declared Romanian language as native (4.91% in urban areas, and 3.64% in rural ones), 9,134 or 13.91% of them declared Russian language as native (25.08% in urban areas, and 4.83% in rural ones), and 584 or 0.89% of them declared another language as native (0.78% in urban areas, and 0.98% in rural ones).

A Bulgarian church (Saint Climent of Ohrid) in Los Angeles, California

Bulgarian Americans

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A Bulgarian church (Saint Climent of Ohrid) in Los Angeles, California

Bulgarian Americans (Американски българи) are Americans of Bulgarian descent.

To Chicago and Back, (Bulgarian:"До Чикаго и назад") by the eminent Bulgarian author Aleko Konstantinov; first published in 1894 mostly concerns attendance at a trade fair, not emigration per se.

Pomaks in the early 20th century

Pomaks

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Pomaks (Помаци; Πομάκοι; Pomaklar) are Bulgarian-speaking Muslims inhabiting northwestern Turkey, Bulgaria and northeastern Greece.

Pomaks (Помаци; Πομάκοι; Pomaklar) are Bulgarian-speaking Muslims inhabiting northwestern Turkey, Bulgaria and northeastern Greece.

Pomaks in the early 20th century
Ethnographic map of European Turkey from the late 19th century, showing the regions largely populated by Pomaks in brown.
Tuhovishta's Mosque
Medusa Pomak village, Xanthi, Thrace, Greece

Their precise origin has been interpreted differently by Bulgarian, Greek and Turkish historians, but it is generally considered they are descendants of native Eastern Orthodox Bulgarians, and Paulicians who also previously converted to Orthodoxy and Catholic faith, who converted to Islam during the Ottoman rule of the Balkans.

Within Macedonian academia, their language has been regarded as Macedonian, while within Bulgarian academia, their dialect is considered as part of the Bulgarian language.