The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Classification of Macedonian within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family
Cyrillic
Krste Petkov Misirkov (pictured) was the first to outline the distinctiveness of the Macedonian language in his book Za makedonckite raboti (On the Macedonian Matters), published in 1903.
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Macedonian police car, with the Macedonian word Полиција (Policija), for "police".
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

Along with the closely related Macedonian language (collectively forming the East South Slavic languages), it is a member of the Balkan sprachbund and South Slavic dialect continuum of the Indo-European language family.

- Bulgarian language

As it is part of a dialect continuum with other South Slavic languages, Macedonian has a high degree of mutual intelligibility with Bulgarian and varieties of Serbo-Croatian.

- Macedonian language
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

18 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea. This is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.

Eastern South Slavic

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[[File:Balkan Slavic linguistic area.png|thumb|right|upright|260px|Balkan Slavic area.

[[File:Balkan Slavic linguistic area.png|thumb|right|upright|260px|Balkan Slavic area.

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea. This is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.
Front cover of the first grammar book of the modern Bulgarian language published by Neofit Rilski in 1835. Rilski was born in Bansko, eastern most Ottoman Macedonia, a town lying exactly on the Yat-border. He tried to unify then Western and Eastern Bulgarian dialects.
The first complete edition of the Bible in modern Bulgarian, printed in Istanbul 1871. The decision to publish the Bible in the Eastern dialects was the historical factor based on which the Modern Bulgarian language departed from its Western and the Macedonian dialect to adopt the Eastern dialect. Behind this translation was the intellectual Petko Slaveykov from Tryavna, a town of the central Pre-Balkan.
Front cover of On the Macedonian Matters published in 1903 by Krste Misirkov, in which he laid down the principles of modern Macedonian. Misirkov was from the village of Postol in Ottoman Central Macedonia.
Decision about the proclamation of the Macedonian as an official language on 2 August 1944 by ASNOM.
Decision about the Macedonian Alphabet 1 May 1945. Note it is written on Bulgarian typewriter using Й and there are hand-written Ѕ, Ј and Џ, and diacritics added to create Ѓ and Ќ. The rejection of the Ъ, together with the adoption of Ј, Џ, Љ and Њ, led some authors to consider this process led by Blaze Koneski to be part of conducted "serbianization".

Macedonian:

Bulgarian:

Balto-Slavic languages.

South Slavic languages

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The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.

The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.

Balto-Slavic languages.
Areas where Eastern South Slavic dialects are spoken:

Bulgarian – (ISO 639-1 code: bg; ISO 639-2 code: bul; SIL code: bul; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-hb)

Macedonian – (ISO 639-1 code: mk; ISO 639-2(B) code: mac; ISO 639-2(T) code: mkd; SIL code: mkd; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-ha)

Balto-Slavic language tree.

Slavic languages

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The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples and their descendants.

The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples and their descendants.

Balto-Slavic language tree.
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Baška tablet, 11th century, Krk, Croatia.
14th-century Novgorodian children were literate enough to send each other letters written on birch bark.
10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, canonical monument of Old Church Slavonic
Map and tree of Slavic languages, according to Kassian and A. Dybo
West Slav tribes in 9th–10th centuries
Linguistic maps of Slavic languages
Map of all areas where the Russian language is the language spoken by the majority of the population.

Of these, 10 have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Bulgarian and Macedonian (eastern dialects of the South group), and Serbo-Croatian and Slovene (western dialects of the South group).

Part of map 72 of the Atlas linguistique de la France, recording local forms meaning "today"

Dialect continuum

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Series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties may not be.

Series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties may not be.

Part of map 72 of the Atlas linguistique de la France, recording local forms meaning "today"
Local dialects of the West Germanic continuum are oriented towards either Standard Dutch or Standard German, depending on which side of the border they are spoken.
Major dialect continua in Europe in the mid-20th century.
Romance languages in Europe
Areas of Chinese dialect groups

During the time of the former Socialist Republic of Macedonia, a standard was developed from local varieties of Eastern South Slavic, within a continuum with Torlakian to the north and Bulgarian to the east.

Now known as Macedonian, it is the national standard of North Macedonia, but viewed by Bulgarians as a dialect of Bulgarian.

North Macedonia

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Tribal ethnes in the Southern Balkans prior to the expansion of Macedon
Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC; ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"
Miniature from the Manasses Chronicle, depicting the defeat of Samuil by Basil II and the return of his blinded soldiers
Nikola Karev, head of the provisional government of the short-lived Kruševo Republic during the Ilinden uprising
Celebration of the Ilinen Uprising in Kruševo during WWI Bulgarian occupation of Southern Serbia.
Members of the pro-Bulgarian Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization (MYSRO) during the Skopje Student Trial in 1927. In December, 20 local youths were accused of fighting for an Independent Macedonia.
The division of the Ottoman territories in Europe (including the region of Macedonia) after the Balkan Wars according to the Treaty of Bucharest
Dimitar Vlahov, Mihajlo Apostolski, Metodija Andonov-Čento, Lazar Koliševski and others, greeted in Skopje on 20 November 1944, a week after its liberation
Lazar Koliševski was the political leader of SR Macedonia and briefly of SFR Yugoslavia.
Map of operations during the 2001 insurgency
Symbolic signing of the Prespa agreement
North Macedonia commemorates its accession to NATO at the US Department of State.
Mount Korab, the highest mountain in North Macedonia.
Matka Canyon
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for North Macedonia
The Parliament Building of North Macedonia in Skopje.
Army of the Republic of North Macedonia
The flag of the then-Republic of Macedonia between 1992 and 1995, bearing the Vergina Sun
Rural/Urban municipalities
Statistical regions of North Macedonia
Vineyard in North Macedonia
Graphical depiction of North Macedonia's product exports.
The church of St. John at Kaneo and Lake Ohrid, one of the most popular tourist destinations in North Macedonia
Map of current and planned highways
European route E75 in North Macedonia
The Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje.
A 19th-century silver Hanukkah Menorah
Linguistic map of North Macedonia, 2002 census
Folk dancers
Tavče gravče
Toše Proeski Arena
The welcoming ceremony for RK Vardar after winning the 2016–17 EHF Champions League
Milcho Manchevski is a critically acclaimed Macedonian film and TV director who won the Golden Lion at Venice Film Festival

The agreement included removal of irredentist material from textbooks and maps in both countries, and official UN recognition of the Slavic Macedonian language.

Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with standard Bulgarian.

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.

Indo-European languages

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The Indo-European languages are a language family native to the overwhelming majority of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the northern Indian subcontinent.

The Indo-European languages are a language family native to the overwhelming majority of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the northern Indian subcontinent.

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.
Indo-European family tree in order of first attestation
Indo-European language family tree based on "Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis of Indo-European languages" by Chang et al
Scheme of Indo-European language dispersals from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the widely held Kurgan hypothesis. – Center: Steppe cultures 1 (black): Anatolian languages (archaic PIE) 2 (black): Afanasievo culture (early PIE) 3 (black) Yamnaya culture expansion (Pontic-Caspian steppe, Danube Valley) (late PIE) 4A (black): Western Corded Ware 4B-C (blue & dark blue): Bell Beaker; adopted by Indo-European speakers 5A-B (red): Eastern Corded ware 5C (red): Sintashta (proto-Indo-Iranian) 6 (magenta): Andronovo 7A (purple): Indo-Aryans (Mittani) 7B (purple): Indo-Aryans (India) [NN] (dark yellow): proto-Balto-Slavic 8 (grey): Greek 9 (yellow):Iranians – [not drawn]: Armenian, expanding from western steppe
Some significant isoglosses in Indo-European daughter languages at around 500 BC.
Blue: centum languages
Red: satem languages
Orange: languages with augment
Green: languages with PIE *-tt- > -ss-
Tan: languages with PIE *-tt- > -st-
Pink: languages with instrumental, dative and ablative plural endings (and some others) in *-m- rather than *-bh-
Countries where Indo-European language family is majority native
Countries where Indo-European language family is official but not majority native
Countries where Indo-European language family is not official

Slavic (from Proto-Slavic), attested from the 9th century AD (possibly earlier), earliest texts in Old Church Slavonic. Slavic languages include Bulgarian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Silesian, Kashubian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian), Sorbian, Slovenian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn.

Serbia

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Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; as many as 18 Roman emperors were born in modern-day Serbia
The Serbian Empire, a medieval Serbian state that emerged from the Kingdom of Serbia. It was established in 1346 by Dušan the Mighty
The Battle of Kosovo (1389) is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition and national identity.
The Great Migrations of the Serbs, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević
Great Serbian Retreat in 1915 led by Peter I of Serbia. As the part of Entente Powers during WW I, Serbia lost about 850,000 people, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Great Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina region with the Kingdom of Serbia in Novi Sad in 1918
A group of children wait in line at an unidentified Croatian Ustaše concentration camp in Croatia, for Serbs and Jews during WWII.
A monument commemorating the victims of Sajmište concentration camp, a part of the Holocaust in German-occupied Serbia and genocide of Serbs in Independent State of Croatia.
The principle of non-alignment was the core of Yugoslav and later Serbian diplomacy. The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in September 1961
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and territories of Serb breakaway states Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina during the Yugoslav wars
Serbian and other children refugees of the Kosovo War. The war ended with NATO bombing which remains a controversial topic.
Topographic map of Serbia including Kosovo
The Iron Gates, Đerdap National Park.
Picea omorika is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Tara mountain in western Serbia.
Uvac Gorge, one of the last remaining habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe.
The Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world.
Map of Serbian language - official (dark blue) or recognized as minority language (light blue).
Building of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade
NIS headquarters in Novi Sad
Serbia is among the world's largest producer of plums as of 2018; plum is considered the national fruit of Serbia.
Serbia Product Exports map 2019
The Fiat 500L is manufactured in the FCA plant in Kragujevac.
Đerdap 1 Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power stations in Europe
Serbian motorway network:
Air Serbia's airplane taking off from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Astrophysicist Milutin Milanković was an important climate science theorist
Nikola Tesla contributed to the design of the modern AC electricity supply system.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1841
The National Museum of Serbia.
Mileševa monastery's White Angel fresco (1235) was in the first Europe-to-America satellite broadcast.
Performance artist Marina Abramović
Miroslav's Gospel (1186) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript on parchment listed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.
Ivo Andrić, Yugoslav writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in his home in Belgrade
Filip Višnjić sings to the gusle by Sreten Stojanović
Exit Festival in Novi Sad, proclaimed as the Best Major European festival at the EU Festival Awards
Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
A Serbian Christmas meal with roast pork, Russian salad and red wine.
Gibanica, a Serbian pastry usually made with cottage cheese and eggs.
Tennis player Novak Djokovic, he has won 20 Grand Slam men's singles titles, including a record nine Australian Open titles.
Nikola Jokić, Two-time NBA MVP and four-time NBA All-Star. Serbia is one of the countries with the largest number of NBA players and with the greatest success in FIBA international competitions.
Serbia men's national water polo team held Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship, World Cup and World League titles simultaneously in period from 2014 to 2016.
Mothers with children in the Croatian Ustaše Stara Gradiška concentration camp, a camp for Serbs and Jews in the Independent State of Croatia during WWII.

Recognised minority languages are: Hungarian, Bosnian, Slovak, Croatian, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Rusyn, and Macedonian.

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world

Macedonians (ethnic group)

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Macedonians (Македонци) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe.

Macedonians (Македонци) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe.

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world
Georgi Pulevski is the first known person, who in 1875 put forward the idea on the existence of a separate (Slavic) Macedonian language and ethnicity.
Krste Misirkov is the first person who in 1903 attempted to codify a standard Macedonian language and appealed for eventual recognition of a separate Macedonian nation when the necessary historical circumstances would arise.
Dimitar Vlahov played a crucial role for the adaptation of the Resolution of the Comintern on the Macedonian question that first of all recognized the existence of a separate Macedonian nation in 1934.
Metodija Andonov-Čento was the first president of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia after the Second World War.
Kiro Gligorov was the first president of the Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia) after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.
Ottoman architecture in Ohrid.
Macedonian girls in traditional folk costumes.
One of the well-known monasteries – St. Panteleimon in Ohrid.
Tavče Gravče, the national dish of Macedonians.
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (1992–1995) depicting the Vergina Sun
Macedonians in North Macedonia, according to the 2002 census
Concentration of Macedonians in Serbia
Regions where Macedonians live within Albania
Macedonian Muslims in North Macedonia
Austrian ethnographic map of the vilayets of Kosovo, Saloniki, Scutari, Janina and Monastir, ca. 1900.
Ethnographic map of the Balkans from the Serbian author Jovan Cvijic (1918)
Greek map by Georgios Sotiriadis submitted to the Paris Peace Conference (1919)
thumb|Ethnographic map of the Balkans in the New Larned History (1922)

They speak Macedonian, a South Slavic language.

The closest relative of Macedonian is Bulgarian, followed by Serbo-Croatian.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Greek language

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Independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer
Proto-Greek-speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev
Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages.
The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas
Geographic distribution of Greek language in the Russian Empire (1897 census)
Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script
Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet from Euboea, Ionia, Athens, and Corinth comparing to modern Greek

Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected; other modern borrowings are derived from South Slavic (Macedonian/Bulgarian) and Eastern Romance languages (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian).

Balkan sprachbund

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Ensemble of areal features— similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology— among the languages of the Balkans.

Ensemble of areal features— similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology— among the languages of the Balkans.

Eastern South Slavic, also known as Balkan Slavic continuum (Bulgarian, Macedonian and Torlakian.)