The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Balto-Slavic languages.
Cyrillic
Areas where Eastern South Slavic dialects are spoken:
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

Bulgarian (, ; български, ) is a South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

- Bulgarian language

Bulgarian – (ISO 639-1 code: bg; ISO 639-2 code: bul; SIL code: bul; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-hb)

- South Slavic languages
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

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Classification of Macedonian within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family

Macedonian language

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Macedonian (македонски јазик, translit.

Macedonian (македонски јазик, translit.

Classification of Macedonian within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family
Krste Petkov Misirkov (pictured) was the first to outline the distinctiveness of the Macedonian language in his book Za makedonckite raboti (On the Macedonian Matters), published in 1903.
Macedonian police car, with the Macedonian word Полиција (Policija), for "police".

As it is part of a dialect continuum with other South Slavic languages, Macedonian has a high degree of mutual intelligibility with Bulgarian and varieties of Serbo-Croatian.

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea. This is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.

Eastern South Slavic

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[[File:Balkan Slavic linguistic area.png|thumb|right|upright|260px|Balkan Slavic area.

[[File:Balkan Slavic linguistic area.png|thumb|right|upright|260px|Balkan Slavic area.

The "Yat border" running approximately from Nikopol on the Danube to Thessaloniki on the Aegean Sea. This is the main isogloss separating the Eastern South Slavic dialects into Eastern and Western.
Front cover of the first grammar book of the modern Bulgarian language published by Neofit Rilski in 1835. Rilski was born in Bansko, eastern most Ottoman Macedonia, a town lying exactly on the Yat-border. He tried to unify then Western and Eastern Bulgarian dialects.
The first complete edition of the Bible in modern Bulgarian, printed in Istanbul 1871. The decision to publish the Bible in the Eastern dialects was the historical factor based on which the Modern Bulgarian language departed from its Western and the Macedonian dialect to adopt the Eastern dialect. Behind this translation was the intellectual Petko Slaveykov from Tryavna, a town of the central Pre-Balkan.
Front cover of On the Macedonian Matters published in 1903 by Krste Misirkov, in which he laid down the principles of modern Macedonian. Misirkov was from the village of Postol in Ottoman Central Macedonia.
Decision about the proclamation of the Macedonian as an official language on 2 August 1944 by ASNOM.
Decision about the Macedonian Alphabet 1 May 1945. Note it is written on Bulgarian typewriter using Й and there are hand-written Ѕ, Ј and Џ, and diacritics added to create Ѓ and Ќ. The rejection of the Ъ, together with the adoption of Ј, Џ, Љ and Њ, led some authors to consider this process led by Blaze Koneski to be part of conducted "serbianization".

Bulgarian:

The Eastern South Slavic dialects form the eastern subgroup of the South Slavic languages.

Balto-Slavic language tree.

Slavic languages

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The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples and their descendants.

The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavic peoples and their descendants.

Balto-Slavic language tree.
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Baška tablet, 11th century, Krk, Croatia.
14th-century Novgorodian children were literate enough to send each other letters written on birch bark.
10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, canonical monument of Old Church Slavonic
Map and tree of Slavic languages, according to Kassian and A. Dybo
West Slav tribes in 9th–10th centuries
Linguistic maps of Slavic languages
Map of all areas where the Russian language is the language spoken by the majority of the population.

The Slavic languages are conventionally (that is, also on the basis of extralinguistic features) divided into three subgroups: East, South, and West, which together constitute more than 20 languages.

Of these, 10 have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Bulgarian and Macedonian (eastern dialects of the South group), and Serbo-Croatian and Slovene (western dialects of the South group).

Old Church Slavonic

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The first Slavic literary language.

The first Slavic literary language.

Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
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A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic

The term Old Bulgarian (старобългарски, Altbulgarisch) is the only designation used by Bulgarian-language writers.

Old Church Slavonic spread to other South-Eastern, Central, and Eastern European Slavic territories, most notably Croatia, Serbia, Bohemia, Lesser Poland, and principalities of the Kievan Rus' – while retaining characteristically South Slavic linguistic features.

Cyrillic letter yat, set in several fonts. Note that in cursive writing, the small yat has a considerably different shape.

Yat

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Thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet.

Thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet.

Cyrillic letter yat, set in several fonts. Note that in cursive writing, the small yat has a considerably different shape.
Bulgarian "yat border".
Pre-revolution typewriter with Yat on the bottom row, between Ч and С.
Cover of 1880 edition of Turgenev's Fathers and Sons, with yat in the title; in modern orthography, дѣти is spelled дети.
In 1914, Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić's map showed the contemporary Serbian point of view where the Yat border separated Serbian from Bulgarian.

бял / бели in Bulgarian (бел / бели in Western dialects)

However, modern Serbian linguists such as Pavle Ivic have accepted that the main isoglosses bundle dividing Eastern and Western South Slavic runs from the mouth of the Timok river alongside Osogovo mountain and Sar Mountain.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Greek language

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Independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer
Proto-Greek-speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev
Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages.
The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas
Geographic distribution of Greek language in the Russian Empire (1897 census)
Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script
Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet from Euboea, Ionia, Athens, and Corinth comparing to modern Greek

Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected; other modern borrowings are derived from South Slavic (Macedonian/Bulgarian) and Eastern Romance languages (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian).

North Macedonia

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Tribal ethnes in the Southern Balkans prior to the expansion of Macedon
Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC; ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"
Miniature from the Manasses Chronicle, depicting the defeat of Samuil by Basil II and the return of his blinded soldiers
Nikola Karev, head of the provisional government of the short-lived Kruševo Republic during the Ilinden uprising
Celebration of the Ilinen Uprising in Kruševo during WWI Bulgarian occupation of Southern Serbia.
Members of the pro-Bulgarian Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization (MYSRO) during the Skopje Student Trial in 1927. In December, 20 local youths were accused of fighting for an Independent Macedonia.
The division of the Ottoman territories in Europe (including the region of Macedonia) after the Balkan Wars according to the Treaty of Bucharest
Dimitar Vlahov, Mihajlo Apostolski, Metodija Andonov-Čento, Lazar Koliševski and others, greeted in Skopje on 20 November 1944, a week after its liberation
Lazar Koliševski was the political leader of SR Macedonia and briefly of SFR Yugoslavia.
Map of operations during the 2001 insurgency
Symbolic signing of the Prespa agreement
North Macedonia commemorates its accession to NATO at the US Department of State.
Mount Korab, the highest mountain in North Macedonia.
Matka Canyon
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for North Macedonia
The Parliament Building of North Macedonia in Skopje.
Army of the Republic of North Macedonia
The flag of the then-Republic of Macedonia between 1992 and 1995, bearing the Vergina Sun
Rural/Urban municipalities
Statistical regions of North Macedonia
Vineyard in North Macedonia
Graphical depiction of North Macedonia's product exports.
The church of St. John at Kaneo and Lake Ohrid, one of the most popular tourist destinations in North Macedonia
Map of current and planned highways
European route E75 in North Macedonia
The Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje.
A 19th-century silver Hanukkah Menorah
Linguistic map of North Macedonia, 2002 census
Folk dancers
Tavče gravče
Toše Proeski Arena
The welcoming ceremony for RK Vardar after winning the 2016–17 EHF Champions League
Milcho Manchevski is a critically acclaimed Macedonian film and TV director who won the Golden Lion at Venice Film Festival

Macedonian belongs to the Eastern branch of the South Slavic language group, while Albanian occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with standard Bulgarian.