A report on Bulgarian language

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Cyrillic
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

- Bulgarian language
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

47 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Bulgaria

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Odrysian golden wreath in the National History Museum
Knyaz Boris I meeting the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius.
The walls of Tsarevets fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the second empire
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 marked the end of medieval Bulgarian statehood.
The Russo-Bulgarian defence of Shipka Pass in 1877
Borders of Bulgaria according to the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
Tsar Boris III
Georgi Dimitrov, leader of the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1946 to 1949
Topography of Bulgaria
Bulgarian Black Sea Coast
The Pirin mountain range
Lacerta viridis in Ropotamo, one of Bulgaria's 16 biosphere reserves
Independence Square in Sofia: The headquarters of the Presidency (right), the National Assembly (centre) and the Council of Ministers (left).
Mikoyan MiG-29 jet fighters of the Bulgarian Air Force
Historical development of GDP per capita
Economic growth (green) and unemployment (blue) statistics since 2001
Tree map of Bulgarian exports in 2016
The launch of BulgariaSat-1 by SpaceX
Trakia motorway
Population trend since 1960
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
The Rectorate of Sofia University
Kuker in Lesichovo
Christo's Mastaba in Hyde Park, London
Grigor Dimitrov at the 2015 Italian Open
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia

Bulgarian is the only language with official status and native for % of the population.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Greek language

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Independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer
Proto-Greek-speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev
Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages.
The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas
Geographic distribution of Greek language in the Russian Empire (1897 census)
Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script
Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet from Euboea, Ionia, Athens, and Corinth comparing to modern Greek

Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English, are typically not inflected; other modern borrowings are derived from South Slavic (Macedonian/Bulgarian) and Eastern Romance languages (Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian).

Standard language

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Language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, although occasionally the term refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties.

Language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage, although occasionally the term refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties.

Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula.

Cyrillic letter yat, set in several fonts. Note that in cursive writing, the small yat has a considerably different shape.

Yat

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Thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet.

Thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet.

Cyrillic letter yat, set in several fonts. Note that in cursive writing, the small yat has a considerably different shape.
Bulgarian "yat border".
Pre-revolution typewriter with Yat on the bottom row, between Ч and С.
Cover of 1880 edition of Turgenev's Fathers and Sons, with yat in the title; in modern orthography, дѣти is spelled дети.
In 1914, Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić's map showed the contemporary Serbian point of view where the Yat border separated Serbian from Bulgarian.

бял / бели in Bulgarian (бел / бели in Western dialects)

European Union

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Political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe.

Political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe.

Meeting in the Hall of Knights in The Hague, during the congress (9 May 1948)
The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession
Treaty of Maastricht, shown containing the signatures of some ministers representing their heads of state
Signing in the Jerónimos Monastery of Lisbon, Portugal
Topographic map of the European Union
Special territories of the European Union
Organigram of the political system with the seven institutions of the Union in blue, national / intergovernmental elements in orange
Roberta Metsola serves as President of the European Parliament
European Parliament represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India)
The CJEU's seat, the Palais de la Cour de Justice, in Luxembourg City.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights affirms the "Right to life" in the EU.
Josep Borrell, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. (G20 summit in Osaka, Japan, 2019).
Of the 27 EU member states, 21 (shown purple) are also members of NATO. Other colours: EU only (blue) and NATO only (orange, including four NATO members that are EU applicants – Albania, Montenegro, Turkey and North Macedonia).
The coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff (EUMS). The arms include Europe's crown of twelve golden stars, an anchor, wings and two crossed swords.
Eastern Partnership Summit 2015, Riga.
Union for the Mediterranean meeting in Barcelona.
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
The euro was introduced in 2002, replacing 12 national currencies. Seven countries have since joined.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
The Öresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden is part of the Trans-European Networks.
European Space Agency Mission Control at ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany
Vineyards in Romania; EU farms are supported by the Common Agricultural Policy, the largest budgetary expenditure.
Biogeographic regions of the continental European Union, according to the European Environmental Agency
Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Renaissance humanist after whom the Erasmus Programme is named
European Health Insurance Card (Slovenian version pictured)
Football fans before a match (San Siro stadium in Milan)
Europa and the Bull on a Greek vase, circa 480 BC. Tarquinia National Museum, Italy
Euronews headquarters in Lyon, France
The European emblem emblazoned on the Eiffel Tower
The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria
Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Seat of Frontex in Warsaw, Poland
The CJEU's seat, the Palais de la Cour de Justice, in Luxembourg City.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. 48th G7 summit in Schloss Elmau, Krün, Bavarian Alps, Germany, 2022.
The EU participates in all G7 and G20 summits. (G7 summit in Cornwall, United Kingdom, 2021).
Classification of regions from 2014 to 2020.
Less developed regions
Transition regions
More developed regions
Eastern Partnership Summit 2017, Brussels.
Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands
Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands

The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.

Ethnicity map of Bulgaria

Languages of Bulgaria

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Ethnicity map of Bulgaria

The official language of Bulgaria is Bulgarian, which is spoken natively by 85% of the country's population.

Example of the Cyrillic script. Excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik". Written in 1360.

Cyrillic script

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Writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia.

Writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranic-speaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia.

Example of the Cyrillic script. Excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik". Written in 1360.
Cyrillic Script Monument in Antarctica
View of the cave monastery near the village of Krepcha, Opaka Municipality in Bulgaria. Here is found the oldest Cyrillic inscription, dated 921.
A page from Азбука (Букварь) (ABC (Reader)), the first Russian language textbook, printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574. This page features the Cyrillic alphabet.
A page from the Church Slavonic Grammar of Meletius Smotrytsky (1619)
Letters Ge, De, I, I kratkoye, Me, Te, Tse, Be and Ve in upright (printed) and cursive (handwritten) variants. (Top is set in Georgia font, bottom in Odessa Script.)
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Alternate variants of lowercase (cursive) Cyrillic letters: Б/б, Д/д, Г/г, И/и, П/п, Т/т, Ш/ш. 
Default Russian (Eastern) forms on the left.
Alternate Bulgarian (Western) upright forms in the middle. 
Alternate Serbian/Macedonian (Southern) italic forms on the right.
See also: 
Cyrillic cursive.svg Special Cyrillics BGDPT.svg

Slavic languages: Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbo-Croatian (Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin), Ukrainian

Statue of the first Czechoslovak president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (whose mother was Czech and father Slovak) with Czech flag on the left and Slovak flag on the right. There is a high level of mutual intelligibility between the closely related West Slavic languages Czech and Slovak (the Czech–Slovak languages).

Mutual intelligibility

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Relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

Relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

Statue of the first Czechoslovak president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (whose mother was Czech and father Slovak) with Czech flag on the left and Slovak flag on the right. There is a high level of mutual intelligibility between the closely related West Slavic languages Czech and Slovak (the Czech–Slovak languages).

Bulgarian: Macedonian (significantly)

Articles in languages in and around Europe    Note that although the Saami languages spoken in northern parts of Norway and Sweden lack articles, Norwegian and Swedish are the majority languages in this area. Although the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh languages lack indefinite articles they too are minority languages in Ireland, Scotland and southern Wales, respectively, with English being the main spoken language.

Article (grammar)

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Any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases.

Any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases.

Articles in languages in and around Europe    Note that although the Saami languages spoken in northern parts of Norway and Sweden lack articles, Norwegian and Swedish are the majority languages in this area. Although the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh languages lack indefinite articles they too are minority languages in Ireland, Scotland and southern Wales, respectively, with English being the main spoken language.

Most of the languages in this family do not have definite or indefinite articles: there is no article in Latin or Sanskrit, nor in some modern Indo-European languages, such as the families of Slavic languages (except for Bulgarian and Macedonian, which are rather distinctive among the Slavic languages in their grammar, and some Northern Russian dialects ), Baltic languages and many Indo-Aryan languages.

Inscription about bishop Nikola Stanislavič in the Dudeştii Vechi church

Banat Bulgarian dialect

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Inscription about bishop Nikola Stanislavič in the Dudeştii Vechi church
Bilingual Banat Bulgarian (written in Latin letters)-Romanian plaque in Vinga
A rare occasion of Banat Bulgarian written in Cyrillic letters in Gostilya, Bulgaria

Banat Bulgarian (Banat Bulgarian: Palćena balgarsćija jázić or Banátsća balgarsćija jázić; банатскa българскa книжовна норма; Banater Bulgarische Sprache; Bánsági bolgár nyelv; Limba bulgarilor bănăţeni; Банатски бугарски језик, Banatski bugarski jezik) is the outermost dialect of the Bulgarian language with standardized writing and an old literary tradition.