A report on Bulgarian language

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Cyrillic
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

- Bulgarian language
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

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Pluricentric language

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Language with several interacting codified standard forms, often corresponding to different countries.

Language with several interacting codified standard forms, often corresponding to different countries.

Some linguists and scholars, mostly from Bulgaria and Greece, but some also from other countries, consider Eastern South Slavic to be a pluricentric language with four standards: Bulgarian (based on the Rup, Balkan and Moesian ("Eastern Bulgarian") dialects), Macedonian (based on the Western and Central Macedonian dialects), Gorani (based on the Torlakian dialects), and Paulician (including Banat Bulgarian).

Bulgarian-inhabited areas in Budjak (purple)

Bessarabian Bulgarians

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The Bessarabian Bulgarians (бесарабски българи, besarabski bǎlgari, bulgari basarabeni, Болгари Бессарабії, bolháry bessarabiyi) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova.

The Bessarabian Bulgarians (бесарабски българи, besarabski bǎlgari, bulgari basarabeni, Болгари Бессарабії, bolháry bessarabiyi) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova.

Bulgarian-inhabited areas in Budjak (purple)
Bulgarian-inhabited areas in Moldova (pink)
The welcome sign of Tvardița, Moldova, written mostly in Bulgarian

53,178 or 80.99% of ethnic Bulgarians declared Bulgarian language as native (69.23% in urban areas, and 90.55% in rural ones), 2,766 or 4.21% of them declared Romanian language as native (4.91% in urban areas, and 3.64% in rural ones), 9,134 or 13.91% of them declared Russian language as native (25.08% in urban areas, and 4.83% in rural ones), and 584 or 0.89% of them declared another language as native (0.78% in urban areas, and 0.98% in rural ones).

Serbia

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Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; as many as 18 Roman emperors were born in modern-day Serbia
The Serbian Empire, a medieval Serbian state that emerged from the Kingdom of Serbia. It was established in 1346 by Dušan the Mighty
The Battle of Kosovo (1389) is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition and national identity.
The Great Migrations of the Serbs, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević
Great Serbian Retreat in 1915 led by Peter I of Serbia. As the part of Entente Powers during WW I, Serbia lost about 850,000 people, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Great Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina region with the Kingdom of Serbia in Novi Sad in 1918
A group of children wait in line at an unidentified Croatian Ustaše concentration camp in Croatia, for Serbs and Jews during WWII.
A monument commemorating the victims of Sajmište concentration camp, a part of the Holocaust in German-occupied Serbia and genocide of Serbs in Independent State of Croatia.
The principle of non-alignment was the core of Yugoslav and later Serbian diplomacy. The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in September 1961
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and territories of Serb breakaway states Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina during the Yugoslav wars
Serbian and other children refugees of the Kosovo War. The war ended with NATO bombing which remains a controversial topic.
Topographic map of Serbia including Kosovo
The Iron Gates, Đerdap National Park.
Picea omorika is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Tara mountain in western Serbia.
Uvac Gorge, one of the last remaining habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe.
The Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world.
Map of Serbian language - official (dark blue) or recognized as minority language (light blue).
Building of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade
NIS headquarters in Novi Sad
Serbia is among the world's largest producer of plums as of 2018; plum is considered the national fruit of Serbia.
Serbia Product Exports map 2019
The Fiat 500L is manufactured in the FCA plant in Kragujevac.
Đerdap 1 Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power stations in Europe
Serbian motorway network:
Air Serbia's airplane taking off from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Astrophysicist Milutin Milanković was an important climate science theorist
Nikola Tesla contributed to the design of the modern AC electricity supply system.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1841
The National Museum of Serbia.
Mileševa monastery's White Angel fresco (1235) was in the first Europe-to-America satellite broadcast.
Performance artist Marina Abramović
Miroslav's Gospel (1186) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript on parchment listed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.
Ivo Andrić, Yugoslav writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in his home in Belgrade
Filip Višnjić sings to the gusle by Sreten Stojanović
Exit Festival in Novi Sad, proclaimed as the Best Major European festival at the EU Festival Awards
Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
A Serbian Christmas meal with roast pork, Russian salad and red wine.
Gibanica, a Serbian pastry usually made with cottage cheese and eggs.
Tennis player Novak Djokovic, he has won 20 Grand Slam men's singles titles, including a record nine Australian Open titles.
Nikola Jokić, Two-time NBA MVP and four-time NBA All-Star. Serbia is one of the countries with the largest number of NBA players and with the greatest success in FIBA international competitions.
Serbia men's national water polo team held Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship, World Cup and World League titles simultaneously in period from 2014 to 2016.
Mothers with children in the Croatian Ustaše Stara Gradiška concentration camp, a camp for Serbs and Jews in the Independent State of Croatia during WWII.

Recognised minority languages are: Hungarian, Bosnian, Slovak, Croatian, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Rusyn, and Macedonian.

North Macedonia

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

Tribal ethnes in the Southern Balkans prior to the expansion of Macedon
Heraclea Lyncestis, a city founded by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC; ruins of the Byzantine "Small Basilica"
Miniature from the Manasses Chronicle, depicting the defeat of Samuil by Basil II and the return of his blinded soldiers
Nikola Karev, head of the provisional government of the short-lived Kruševo Republic during the Ilinden uprising
Celebration of the Ilinen Uprising in Kruševo during WWI Bulgarian occupation of Southern Serbia.
Members of the pro-Bulgarian Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization (MYSRO) during the Skopje Student Trial in 1927. In December, 20 local youths were accused of fighting for an Independent Macedonia.
The division of the Ottoman territories in Europe (including the region of Macedonia) after the Balkan Wars according to the Treaty of Bucharest
Dimitar Vlahov, Mihajlo Apostolski, Metodija Andonov-Čento, Lazar Koliševski and others, greeted in Skopje on 20 November 1944, a week after its liberation
Lazar Koliševski was the political leader of SR Macedonia and briefly of SFR Yugoslavia.
Map of operations during the 2001 insurgency
Symbolic signing of the Prespa agreement
North Macedonia commemorates its accession to NATO at the US Department of State.
Mount Korab, the highest mountain in North Macedonia.
Matka Canyon
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for North Macedonia
The Parliament Building of North Macedonia in Skopje.
Army of the Republic of North Macedonia
The flag of the then-Republic of Macedonia between 1992 and 1995, bearing the Vergina Sun
Rural/Urban municipalities
Statistical regions of North Macedonia
Vineyard in North Macedonia
Graphical depiction of North Macedonia's product exports.
The church of St. John at Kaneo and Lake Ohrid, one of the most popular tourist destinations in North Macedonia
Map of current and planned highways
European route E75 in North Macedonia
The Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje.
A 19th-century silver Hanukkah Menorah
Linguistic map of North Macedonia, 2002 census
Folk dancers
Tavče gravče
Toše Proeski Arena
The welcoming ceremony for RK Vardar after winning the 2016–17 EHF Champions League
Milcho Manchevski is a critically acclaimed Macedonian film and TV director who won the Golden Lion at Venice Film Festival

Macedonian is closely related to and mutually intelligible with standard Bulgarian.

A Bulgarian church (Saint Climent of Ohrid) in Los Angeles, California

Bulgarian Americans

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Bulgarian Americans (Американски българи) are Americans of Bulgarian descent.

Bulgarian Americans (Американски българи) are Americans of Bulgarian descent.

A Bulgarian church (Saint Climent of Ohrid) in Los Angeles, California

To Chicago and Back, (Bulgarian:"До Чикаго и назад") by the eminent Bulgarian author Aleko Konstantinov; first published in 1894 mostly concerns attendance at a trade fair, not emigration per se.

Parteniy Zografski as Metropolitan of Nishava (Bulgarian Exarchate).

Parteniy Zografski

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19th-century Bulgarian cleric, philologist, and folklorist from Galičnik in today's North Macedonia, one of the early figures of the Bulgarian National Revival.

19th-century Bulgarian cleric, philologist, and folklorist from Galičnik in today's North Macedonia, one of the early figures of the Bulgarian National Revival.

Parteniy Zografski as Metropolitan of Nishava (Bulgarian Exarchate).
The Bulgarian church in Istanbul where Parteny Zografski is buried.

In his works he referred to his language as Bulgarian and demonstrated a Bulgarian spirit, though besides contributing to the development of the Bulgarian language, In North Macedonia he is also thought to have contributed to the foundation of the present day Macedonian.

IMRO revolutionaries in Klisoura of Kastoria during the Ilinden Uprising of 1903.

Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia

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Slavic speakers are a linguistic minority population in the northern Greek region of Macedonia, who are mostly concentrated in certain parts of the peripheries of West and Central Macedonia, adjacent to the territory of the state of North Macedonia.

Slavic speakers are a linguistic minority population in the northern Greek region of Macedonia, who are mostly concentrated in certain parts of the peripheries of West and Central Macedonia, adjacent to the territory of the state of North Macedonia.

IMRO revolutionaries in Klisoura of Kastoria during the Ilinden Uprising of 1903.
Refugee children from Gorno Brodi, Serres resettled in Peshtera after the Second Balkan War, 1913
Triple occupation of Greece.
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Principal areas with presence of Slavic speakers in Greece (pink and purple), along with other minority language communities. Greek is today spoken as the dominant language throughout the country.
Ethnic Macedonian dancing group from Greece, Belomorci, performing the song "Egejska Maka".
Dialectic divisions of Macedonian within Greece.
French ethnographic map of the Balkans by Ami Boue, 1847.
The nationalities of southeastern Europe according to Pallas Nagy Lexikona, 1897.
The regions of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by ethnic Bulgarians in 1912, according to the Bulgarian point of view.
Greek ethnographic map from 1918, showing the Macedonian Slavs as a separate people.
Bulgarian Exarchate seal of the Voden (Edessa) municipality, 1870.
Pupils of the Greek school of Zoupanishta, near Kastoria.
Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki celebrating Saints Cyril and Methodius Day, c. 1900.
The title page of the Konikovo Gospel, printed in 1852.

The Slavic dialects spoken across Northern Greece belong to the eastern group of South Slavic, comprising Bulgarian and Macedonian, and share all the characteristics that set this group apart from other Slavic languages: existence of a definite article, lack of cases, lack of a verb infinitive, comparative forms of adjectives formed with the prefix по-, future tense formed by the present form of the verb preceded by ще/ќе, and existence of a renarrative mood.

Hemisphere view

Russian language

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East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia.

East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia.

Hemisphere view
Competence of Russian in countries of the former Soviet Union (except Russia), 2004
Percentage of people in Ukraine with Russian as their native language (according to a 2001 census) (by region)
A page from Azbuka (Alphabet book), the first East Slavic printed textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574 in Lviv. This page features the Cyrillic script.
Russian vowel chart by
This page from an "ABC" book printed in Moscow in 1694 shows the letter П.
The Ostromir Gospels of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library.

Also, Russian has notable lexical similarities with Bulgarian due to a common Church Slavonic influence on both languages, but because of later interaction in the 19th and 20th centuries, Bulgarian grammar differs markedly from Russian.

Arabic

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Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

The Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of words of Arabic origin through contact with Ottoman Turkish.

Sofia

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Capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

Capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

The first seal of the city from 1878 which calls it Sredets
O: head of river-god Strymon
R: trident 
This coin imitates Macedonian issue from 187 to 168 BC. It was struck by Serdi tribe as their own currency
The eastern gate of Serdica in the "Complex Ancient Serdica"
Dated from the early 4th century, the Church of Saint George is the oldest standing edifice in Sofia
The 13th century lord of Sredets Kaloyan and his wife Desislava, Boyana Church
Sofia in mid-19th-century
The allied bombing of Sofia in World War II in 1944
A view over central Sofia, with the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the foreground and Vitosha in the distance
Interior of the ancient Saint Sofia Church.
Neoclassical architecture, Poligrafia office center.
Borisova gradina.
A map of the 24 districts of Sofia
The National Assembly building.
The Council of Ministers (left), Presidency (right) and the former Communist Party House.
Ivan Vazov National Theatre
The Museum of Contemporary Art
Interior of the medieval Boyana Church
The Banya Bashi Mosque an example of Ottoman architecture.
Vitosha Boulevard, the main shopping street in the city
Armeets Arena during the ATP Sofia Open
Students of the National Academy of Arts (circa 1952–53). People aged 20–25 years have been the most numerous group in the city since the process of Bulgarian urbanisation
Business Park Sofia
A Siemens Desiro train of the Bulgarian State Railways at the Central Railway Station
Cherni Vrah Boulevard
The Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy of Sofia University

Amongst others, the population consisted of Muslims, Bulgarian and Greek speaking Orthodox Christians, Armenians, Georgians, Catholic Ragusans, Jews (Romaniote, Ashkenazi and Sephardi), and Romani people.