A report on Bulgarian language

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Cyrillic
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

- Bulgarian language
The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

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A page from the Zograf Codex with text of the Gospel of Luke

Glagolitic script

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Oldest known Slavic alphabet.

Oldest known Slavic alphabet.

A page from the Zograf Codex with text of the Gospel of Luke
The Baška tablet, found in the 19th century on Krk, conventionally dated to about 1100.
The first page of the Gospel of Mark from the 10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, found in the Zograf Monastery in 1843.
The first page of the Gospel of John from the Codex Zographensis.
In a book printed in 1591, Angelo Rocca attributed the Glagolitic script to Saint Jerome.
Glagolitic script in the Zagreb Cathedral
The last Glagolitic entry in the baptismal register of the Omišalj parish on the island of Krk by the parishioner Nicholas in 1817.
The Lord's Prayer shown in (from left) round, angular, and cursive versions of Glagolitic script.

In the languages spoken now where Glagolitic was once used, the script is known as глаголица (romanized as glagolitsa and glagolica, respectively) in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Russian; glagoljica in Croatian and Serbian; hlaholice in Czech; głagolica in Polish; hlaholika in Slovak; and glagolica in Slovene.

Middle Bulgarian

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The lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

The lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire.

Being descended from Old Bulgarian, Middle Bulgarian eventually developed into modern Bulgarian language by the 16th century.

Greece

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

The entrance of the Treasury of Atreus (13th BC) in Mycenae
Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (750–550 BC)
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens, icon of classical Greece.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Map of Alexander's short-lived empire (334–323 BC). After his death the lands were divided between the Diadochi
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 100 BC) is considered to be the first known mechanical analog computer (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
A view from the ancient royal Macedonian tombs in Vergina
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built in 161 AD
Dome of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki (8th century), one of the 15 UNESCO's Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of the city
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, originally built in the late 7th century as a Byzantine citadel and beginning from 1309 used by the Knights Hospitaller as an administrative centre
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire after the death of Basil II in 1025
The Byzantine castle of Angelokastro successfully repulsed the Ottomans during the First Great Siege of Corfu in 1537, the siege of 1571, and the Second Great Siege of Corfu in 1716, causing them to abandon their plans to conquer Corfu.
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, one of the best-known Ottoman structures remaining in Greece.
The sortie (exodus) of Messolonghi, depicting the Third Siege of Missolonghi, painted by Theodoros Vryzakis.
The Battle of Navarino in 1827 secured Greek independence.
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, painted by Peter von Hess in 1839.
The territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1947.
Hellenic Army formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris, July 1919.
Map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos as its supervising genius.
The Axis occupation of Greece.
People in Athens celebrate the liberation from the Axis powers, October 1944. Postwar Greece would soon experience a civil war and political polarization.
Signing at Zappeion by Constantine Karamanlis of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.
Navagio (shipwreck) bay, Zakynthos island
The Greek mainland and several small islands seen from Nydri, Lefkada
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and mythical abode of the Gods of Olympus
The building of the Hellenic Parliament (Old Royal Palace) in central Athens.
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first governor, founder of the modern Greek State, and distinguished European diplomat
Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister since 2019
Representation through: 
 embassy
 embassy in another country
 general consulate
 no representation
 Greece
GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Greece exports, 2019
Greece's debt percentage since 1977, compared to the average of the Eurozone
Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos
Solar-power generation potential in Greece
Greek companies control 16.2% of the world's total merchant fleet making it the largest in the world. They are ranked in the top 5 for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers.
Santorini, a popular tourist destination, is ranked as the world's top island in many travel magazines and sites.
The Rio–Antirrio bridge connects mainland Greece to the Peloponnese.
Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum
Georgios Papanikolaou, a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection
Hermoupolis, on the island of Syros, is the capital of the Cyclades.
Population pyramid of Greece in 2017
Our Lady of Tinos
Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Today, Greek is the dominant language throughout the country.
A map of the fifty countries with the largest Greek diaspora communities.
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Ionian Academy in Corfu, the first academic institution of modern Greece.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, still used for theatrical plays.
Close-up of the Charioteer of Delphi, a celebrated statue from the 5th century BC.
Towerhouses of Vatheia in Mani peninsula
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece
Parnassos Literary Society, painted by Georgios Roilos (Kostis Palamas is at the center)
A statue of Plato in Athens.
Cretan dancers of traditional folk music
Rebetes in Karaiskaki, Piraeus (1933). Left Markos Vamvakaris with bouzouki.
Mikis Theodorakis was one of the most popular and significant Greek composers
A Greek salad, with feta and olives.
Theodoros Angelopoulos, winner of the Palme d'Or in 1998, notable director in the history of the European cinema
Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon; 1896 Summer Olympics.
Angelos Charisteas scoring Greece's winning goal in the UEFA Euro 2004 Final
The Greek national basketball team in 2008. Twice European champions (1987 and 2005) and second in the world in 2006
Procession in honor of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (15 August)

The Muslim minority in Thrace, which amounts to approximately 0.95% of the total population, consists of speakers of Turkish, Bulgarian (Pomaks) and Romani.

Analytic language

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Analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words and word order, as opposed to using inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).

Analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words and word order, as opposed to using inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).

Bulgarian

Neofit Rilski gravestone in the Rila monastery, Bulgaria

Neofit Rilski

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19th-century Bulgarian monk, teacher and artist, and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.

19th-century Bulgarian monk, teacher and artist, and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.

Neofit Rilski gravestone in the Rila monastery, Bulgaria
Neofit Rilski

In 1835, Rilski issued his Bolgarska gramatika, the first grammar book of modern Bulgarian language.

Infinitive

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Linguistics term for certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

Linguistics term for certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

Bulgarian and Macedonian have lost the infinitive altogether except in a handful of frozen expressions where it is the same as the 3rd person singular aorist form.

The grammatical gender of a noun affects the form of other words related to it. For example, in Spanish, determiners, adjectives, and pronouns change their form depending on the noun to which they refer. Spanish nouns have two genders: masculine and feminine, represented here by the nouns gato and gata respectively.

Grammatical gender

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Specific form of noun class system, where nouns are assigned with gender categories that are often not related to their real-world qualities.

Specific form of noun class system, where nouns are assigned with gender categories that are often not related to their real-world qualities.

The grammatical gender of a noun affects the form of other words related to it. For example, in Spanish, determiners, adjectives, and pronouns change their form depending on the noun to which they refer. Spanish nouns have two genders: masculine and feminine, represented here by the nouns gato and gata respectively.
In the French language, countries can have masculine (green) or feminine (purple) names. Except for certain islands and Mexique, Mozambique, Cambodge and Zimbabwe, the gender depends on whether the country name ends in -e.
In the Polish language, countries can have masculine (blue), feminine (red) or neuter (yellow) names. Countries with plural names are green.
Gender in European languages.
Light blue: no gender system.
 
Yellow: common/neuter.
 
Red: masculine/feminine.
 
Green: animate/inanimate.
 
Dark blue: masculine/feminine/neuter. Standard Dutch has a three-gender structure, which fell in disuse in the North of the Netherlands but remains very much alive in Flanders and the South of the Netherlands.
Statistical data on the Spanish nouns and names ending in a

So adjectives and pronouns have three forms in singular (e.g. Bulgarian, червена, червено or German , rote, rotes) but only one in plural (Bulgarian червени, German rote) [all examples mean "red"].

Cyrillic little yus (left) and big yus (right); normal forms (above) and iotified (below)

Yus

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Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets.

Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets.

Cyrillic little yus (left) and big yus (right); normal forms (above) and iotified (below)
Handwritten little yus
A beard tax token from 1705 containing Ѧ

Big Yus was a part of the Bulgarian alphabet until 1945.

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world

Macedonians (ethnic group)

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Macedonians (Македонци) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe.

Macedonians (Македонци) are a nation and a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia in Southeast Europe.

Map of the Macedonian diaspora in the world
Georgi Pulevski is the first known person, who in 1875 put forward the idea on the existence of a separate (Slavic) Macedonian language and ethnicity.
Krste Misirkov is the first person who in 1903 attempted to codify a standard Macedonian language and appealed for eventual recognition of a separate Macedonian nation when the necessary historical circumstances would arise.
Dimitar Vlahov played a crucial role for the adaptation of the Resolution of the Comintern on the Macedonian question that first of all recognized the existence of a separate Macedonian nation in 1934.
Metodija Andonov-Čento was the first president of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia after the Second World War.
Kiro Gligorov was the first president of the Republic of Macedonia (now North Macedonia) after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.
Ottoman architecture in Ohrid.
Macedonian girls in traditional folk costumes.
One of the well-known monasteries – St. Panteleimon in Ohrid.
Tavče Gravče, the national dish of Macedonians.
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (1992–1995) depicting the Vergina Sun
Macedonians in North Macedonia, according to the 2002 census
Concentration of Macedonians in Serbia
Regions where Macedonians live within Albania
Macedonian Muslims in North Macedonia
Austrian ethnographic map of the vilayets of Kosovo, Saloniki, Scutari, Janina and Monastir, ca. 1900.
Ethnographic map of the Balkans from the Serbian author Jovan Cvijic (1918)
Greek map by Georgios Sotiriadis submitted to the Paris Peace Conference (1919)
thumb|Ethnographic map of the Balkans in the New Larned History (1922)

The closest relative of Macedonian is Bulgarian, followed by Serbo-Croatian.

Kuzman Shapkarev decorated with the Bulgarian Order "For Civil Merit",
5th Class

Kuzman Shapkarev

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Bulgarian folklorist, ethnographer and scientist from the Ottoman region of Macedonia, author of textbooks and ethnographic studies and a significant figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.

Bulgarian folklorist, ethnographer and scientist from the Ottoman region of Macedonia, author of textbooks and ethnographic studies and a significant figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.

Kuzman Shapkarev decorated with the Bulgarian Order "For Civil Merit",
5th Class
The title page of the autobiography of Shapkarev "Materials on the history of the revival of the Bulgarian national idea in Macedonia."

In these towns he was especially active in introducing the Bulgarian language in local schools.