Bulimia nervosa

bulimiabulimicbulimicsBinging and purgingpurgingalternating self-starvation with heavy bingesan even greater problemBelle Emiabingeingbingeing and purging
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.wikipedia
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Eating disorder

eating disorderseatingdisordered eating
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
They include binge eating disorder, where people eat a large amount in a short period of time; anorexia nervosa, where people eat very little due to a fear of gaining weight and thus have a low body weight; bulimia nervosa, where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food; pica, where people eat non-food items; rumination syndrome, where people regurgitate food; avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), where people have a lack of interest in food; and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives.
Self-induced vomiting can be a component of an eating disorder such as bulimia, and is itself now an eating disorder on its own, purging disorder.

Diuretic

diureticsdiuretic medicationsdiuretic use
Other efforts to lose weight may include the use of diuretics, stimulants, water fasting, or excessive exercise.
Diuretics are sometimes abused by people with an eating disorder, especially people with bulimia nervosa, with the goal of losing weight.

Binge eating disorder

Binge Eatingbinge-eating disorderBinge Eating Disorder (BED)
Other similar disorders include binge eating disorder, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and borderline personality disorder.
BED is a recently described condition, which was required to distinguish binge eating similar to that seen in bulimia nervosa but without characteristic purging.

Binge eating

bingebinge eatbinging
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
It is a common symptom of eating disorders such as binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Bulimia is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and problems with drugs or alcohol.
Categories of disorder in this area include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, exercise bulimia or binge eating disorder.

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant classes may have a modest benefit.
Antidepressants are recommended as an alternative or additional first step to self-help programs in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.

Gerald Russell

Bulimia was named and first described by the British psychiatrist Gerald Russell in 1979.
In 1979 he published the first description of bulimia nervosa, and Russell's sign has been named after him.

Tricyclic antidepressant

tricyclic antidepressantsTCAsTCA
Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant classes may have a modest benefit.
They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), neurological disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRIs
Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant classes may have a modest benefit.
Antidepressants are recommended as an alternative or additional first step to self-help programs in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
Cognitive behavioral therapy is the primary treatment for bulimia.
According to the study, CBT was effective at treating schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress, anxiety disorders, bulimia, anorexia, personality disorders and alcohol dependency.

Mallory–Weiss syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndromeMallory-Weiss tearMallory–Weiss tear
This is usually caused by severe vomiting because of alcoholism or bulimia, but can be caused by any condition which causes violent vomiting and retching such as food poisoning.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
Other similar disorders include binge eating disorder, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and borderline personality disorder.

Interoception

interoceptivesense
With regards to interoception, people with bulimia report reduced sensitivity to many kinds of internal and external sensations.
Misrepresentations of internal states, or a disconnect between the body's signals and the brain's interpretation and prediction of those signals, have been suggested to underlie some mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, panic disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism spectrum disorders, somatic symptom disorder, and illness anxiety disorder.

Electrolyte imbalance

electrolyte problemselectrolyte disturbanceelectrolyte abnormalities
People suffering from bulimia or anorexia nervosa are at especially high risk for an electrolyte imbalance.

Laxative

purgativelaxativesEx-Lax
This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives.
Although patients with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa frequently abuse laxatives in an attempt to lose weight, laxatives act to speed up the transit of feces through the large intestine, which occurs subsequent to the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

Self-harm

self-mutilationself-injuryself harm
There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.
However, the number of self-harm methods are only limited by an individual's inventiveness and their determination to harm themselves; this includes burning, self-poisoning, alcohol abuse, self-embedding of objects, hair pulling, bruising/hitting one's self, scratching to hurt one's self, knowingly abusing over the counter or prescription drugs, and forms of self-harm related to anorexia and bulimia.

Russell's sign

thickened skin on the knuckles
The forcing of vomiting may result in thickened skin on the knuckles and breakdown of the teeth.
This type of scarring is considered one of the physical indicators of a mental illness, and Russell's sign is primarily found in patients with an eating disorder such as bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa.

Esophageal rupture

Boerhaave syndromeesophageal perforationBoerhaave's syndrome
The syndrome is commonly associated with the consumption of excessive food and/or alcohol as well as eating disorders such as bulimia.

Affective spectrum

affective disordersaffectiveaffective disorder
People with bulimia are more likely than people without bulimia to have an affective disorder, such as depression or general anxiety disorder.

Fluoxetine

ProzacProzakSarafem
This includes fluoxetine, which is FDA approved, for the treatment of bulimia, other antidepressants such as sertraline may also be effective against bulimia.
It is used for the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Acid erosion

erosiondental erosionTooth erosion
This is often secondary to conditions such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and rumination syndrome.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSM-IVDSM-IV-TRDSM
Another study by the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne on a cohort of 2,000 adolescents similarly found that those meeting at least two of the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa had a sixfold increase in risk of anxiety and a doubled risk for substance dependency.

Type 2 diabetes

diabetes mellitus type 2type II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
There may be an increased risk for diabetes mellitus type 2.
Eating disorders may also interact with type 2 diabetes, with bulimia nervosa increasing the risk and anorexia nervosa decreasing it.