Bullet

7.5×55mm Swiss full metal jacket, armor piercing, and tracer, spitzer projectiles. The three bullets on the left show cannelure evolution
Round shot from the 16th century Mary Rose English warship, showing both stone and iron ball shot
Matchlock musket balls, alleged to have been discovered at Naseby battlefield
Delvigne further developed cylindro-spherical (left) and cylindro-conical bullets (middle), which received the bullet grooves developed by Tamisier for stability
Before Tamisier's invention, the orientation of a cylindro-conical bullet tended to remain along its inertial axis, progressively setting it against its trajectory and increasingly meeting air resistance, which rendered the bullet's movement erratic
Minié ball ammunition
1855 Minié ball design from the U.S. Arsenal, Harper's Ferry, West Virginia
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A bullet in mid flight
Bullet wound on the ribs of a deer in the lung area
Expanding bullet loaded in a 6.5×55mm before and after expanding. The long base and small expanded diameter show that this is a bullet designed for deep penetration on large game. The bullet in the photo traveled more than halfway through a moose before coming to rest, performing as designed.
Hard cast solid bullet (left), with gas check (center) and lubrication (right)

Kinetic projectile, a component of firearm ammunition that is shot from a gun barrel.

- Bullet
7.5×55mm Swiss full metal jacket, armor piercing, and tracer, spitzer projectiles. The three bullets on the left show cannelure evolution

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Japanese samurai's matchlock converted to percussion lock

Percussion cap

Type of single-use percussion ignition device for muzzle loader firearm locks enabling them to fire reliably in any weather condition.

Type of single-use percussion ignition device for muzzle loader firearm locks enabling them to fire reliably in any weather condition.

Japanese samurai's matchlock converted to percussion lock
A pair of caplock twister pistols
Inverted percussion pistol, 9.5 mm; made by gunsmith Correvon, Morges, 1854.
John Wilkes Booth's single-shot caplock derringer used to assassinate Abraham Lincoln.
Springfield and Enfield caplocks
Detail of the firing mechanism on an instruction cutaway model of a French navy percussion pistol, model 1837
Caplock horse pistol, Swiss Ordnance 1817/42
Loading sequence for percussion revolvers
USSR booby trap firing device – pull fuze: normally connected to a tripwire. Percussion cap is clearly labelled
Alternative design of USSR booby trap firing device – pull fuze: normally connected to tripwire. Percussion cap is clearly labelled
USSR boobytrap firing device – pressure fuze: victim steps on loose floorboard with fuze concealed underneath
Cross-sectional view of a Japanese Type 99 grenade showing percussion primer
Cross-sectional view of the fuze fitted to a German S-mine. Percussion cap is clearly labelled

Cap and ball describes cap-lock firearms discharging a single bore-diameter spherical bullet with each shot.

A projectile being fired from an artillery piece

Muzzle velocity

A projectile being fired from an artillery piece

Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile (bullet, pellet, slug, ball/shots or shell) with respect to the muzzle at the moment it leaves the end of a gun's barrel (i.e. the muzzle).

The sound source is travelling at 1.4 times the speed of sound (Mach 1.4). Since the source is moving faster than the sound waves it creates, it leads the advancing wavefront.

Sonic boom

Sound associated with shock waves created when an object travels through the air faster than the speed of sound.

Sound associated with shock waves created when an object travels through the air faster than the speed of sound.

The sound source is travelling at 1.4 times the speed of sound (Mach 1.4). Since the source is moving faster than the sound waves it creates, it leads the advancing wavefront.
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Mach cone angle
NASA data showing N-wave signature.
XB1 Supersonic Aircraft
A model of a supersonic aircraft made by Virgin Galactic hitting Mach 3.
New research is being performed at NASA's Glenn Research Center that could help alleviate the sonic boom produced by supersonic aircraft. Testing was completed in 2010 of a Large-Scale Low-Boom supersonic inlet model with micro-array flow control. A NASA aerospace engineer is pictured here in a wind tunnel with the Large-Scale Low-Boom supersonic inlet model.
NASA F-5E modified for DARPA sonic boom tests
A point source emitting spherical fronts while increasing its velocity linearly with time. For short times the Doppler effect is visible. When v = c, the sonic boom is visible. When v > c, the Mach cone is visible.
An Australian bullwhip

The crack of a supersonic bullet passing overhead or the crack of a bullwhip are examples of a sonic boom in miniature.

Male skull showing bullet exit wound on parietal bone, 1950s.

Gunshot wound

Male skull showing bullet exit wound on parietal bone, 1950s.
Penetrating neck injury protocol.
Abdominal gunshot wound
Acute penetrating trauma from a close-range shotgun blast injury to knee. Birdshot pellets are visible in the wound, within the shattered patella. The powder wad from the shotgun shell has been extracted from the wound, and is visible at the upper right of the image.

A gunshot wound (GSW) is a penetrating injury caused by a projectile (e.g. a bullet) from a gun (typically firearm or air gun).

A United States Navy F/A-18F Super Hornet in transonic flight

Supersonic speed

Speed of an object that exceeds the speed of sound .

Speed of an object that exceeds the speed of sound .

A United States Navy F/A-18F Super Hornet in transonic flight
U.S. Navy F/A-18 approaching the sound barrier. The white cloud forms as a result of the supersonic expansion fans dropping the air temperature below the dew point.
British Airways Concorde in early BA livery at London-Heathrow Airport, in the early 1980s
The sound source has now broken through the sound speed barrier, and is traveling at 1.4 times the speed of sound, c (Mach 1.4). Because the source is moving faster than the sound waves it creates, it actually leads the advancing wavefront. The sound source will pass by a stationary observer before the observer actually hears the sound it creates.

Most modern firearm bullets are supersonic, with rifle projectiles often travelling at speeds approaching and in some cases well exceeding Mach 3.

A case of silencers produced by Gemtech.

Silencer (firearms)

[[File:Suppressors.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Silenced firearms (without magazines) Top to bottom:• Uzi

[[File:Suppressors.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Silenced firearms (without magazines) Top to bottom:• Uzi

A case of silencers produced by Gemtech.
Cutaway silencer
Revolver with silencer. Gas can be seen escaping between barrel and cylinder
Cross-section drawing of a centerfire rifle silencer, showing expansion chamber "reflexed" (going back around) the rifle barrel, and four sound baffles. The diffractor and baffles are carefully shaped to deflect gas.
Cross-section drawing of a rimfire rifle silencer, showing short expansion chamber and thirteen plastic baffles. These baffles use alternating angled flat surfaces to repeatedly deflect gas expanding through the silencer. In the actual silencer, baffles are orientated at 90 degrees to one another about the axis of bullet travel. (The illustration does not demonstrate this well.)
Cross-section drawing of a pistol silencer, showing expansion chamber wrapped around inner suppressor assembly, and four wipes. The bullet pushes a bullet-diameter hole through the wipes, trapping propellant gas behind it entirely until the bullet has passed through the wipe completely
Cross-section of a silencer integral to the firearm
Firearm suppressor disassembled to show blast chamber, baffles, and sections of the outer tube
Silenced 12 gauge shotgun and 7.62×39 mm rifle
SilencerCo Osprey .45 silencer on a Springfield pistol
Rear of a silencer with the Nielsen device protruding (completely assembled)
Retaining ring unscrewed and Nielsen device partially removed
Nielsen device completely removed and disassembled
Rear of silencer showing the rotational indexing system incorporated into some Nielsen devices
Integral silencer on VSS Vintorez sniper rifle and AS Val assault rifle
Firearm silencers including the SilencerCo Osprey 9, SWR Octane 45, and SilencerCo Saker 5.56

A typical silencer is a metallic (usually stainless steel or titanium) cylinder containing internal sound baffles, with a hollow bore to allow the projectile (bullet) to exit normally.

A projectile being fired from an artillery piece

Projectile

Object that is propelled by the application of an external force and then moves freely under the influence of gravity and air resistance.

Object that is propelled by the application of an external force and then moves freely under the influence of gravity and air resistance.

A projectile being fired from an artillery piece
Projectile and cartridge case for the huge World War II Schwerer Gustav artillery piece. Most projectile weapons use the compression or expansion of gases as their motive force.
Ball speeds of 105 mph have been recorded in baseball.

Although any objects in motion through space are projectiles, they are commonly found in warfare and sports (for example, a thrown baseball, kicked football, fired bullet, shot arrow, stone released from catapult).

A belt of 0.50 caliber ammunition loaded into an M2 Browning. Every fifth round (red tips) is an M20 (armor piercing incendiary tracer).

Ammunition

Material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon or weapon system.

Material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon or weapon system.

A belt of 0.50 caliber ammunition loaded into an M2 Browning. Every fifth round (red tips) is an M20 (armor piercing incendiary tracer).
Cannonballs from the American Civil War
Preparing 105mm M119 howitzer ammunition: powder propellant, cartridge, and shell with fuze.
The inside of a modern 12.7mm anti-materiel rifle bullet
Female ordnance workers inspecting cartridge cases in Los Angeles, 1943
Various rifle cartridges compared to the height of a US$1 bill.
M107 Shells
Modern 120 mm tank gun cartridges with different projectiles
Fourteen-inch ammunition on the deck of a battleship in 1944.

Ammunition is both expendable weapons (e.g., bombs, missiles, grenades, land mines) and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target (e.g., bullets and warheads).

The Tsar Cannon with its massive bore and the stacked barrel-looking exterior

Gun barrel

Crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

Crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

The Tsar Cannon with its massive bore and the stacked barrel-looking exterior
A female worker boring out the barrel of a Lee-Enfield rifle during WWI
The barrel of a 240 mm howitzer in use in 1944
A German Army G22 with fluted barrel
A cartridge being chambered into a Springfield M1903.
Illustration of the various sections of a typical rifle chamber. The back end is to the left, and the front is to the right. — body (purple), shoulder (pink) and neck (green).
Closeup of barrel throat area. The chamber is to the left, and the muzzle is to the right. The freebore (cyan) and leade (dark grey) transition into rifled bore (pale grey), and the comparison between freebore diameter vs. rifling groove and land diameter.
The inside of a Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore tank gun (seen from the muzzle) of a Leopard 2A4
Muzzle of a SIG 550 rifle, equipped with a birdcage-type flash suppressor
Various types of shotgun chokes
Muzzle blast modulated by an A2-style flash suppressor
Production steps in the cold-hammer forging process to produce the barrels for a double-barrelled shotgun

However, the chamber (closed from behind by the bolt) restrains the cartridge case (or shell for shotguns) from moving, allowing the bullet (or shot/slug in shotguns) to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front (muzzle) end as a flying projectile.

Chassepot paper cartridge (1866).

Paper cartridge

One of various types of small arms ammunition used before the advent of the metallic cartridge.

One of various types of small arms ammunition used before the advent of the metallic cartridge.

Chassepot paper cartridge (1866).
Diagram of an Enfield pattern 1853 rifled musket cartridge, showing the three layers of paper and how they combined to form the cartridge.
.44 and .36 paper cartridges for Colt percussion revolvers
Diagram of a Prussian needle gun cartridge

These cartridges consisted of a paper cylinder or cone containing the bullet, gunpowder, and in some cases, a primer or a lubricating and anti-fouling agent.