Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

pine wood nematodeB. xylophiluspine wilt diseasepine wilt nematode
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, commonly known as pine wood nematode or pine wilt nematode (PWN), is a species of nematode that infects pine trees and causes the disease pine wilt.wikipedia
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Bursaphelenchus

Species of the genus Bursaphelenchus are difficult to distinguish because they are similar in morphology.
Most are obligate mycophages, but some feed on wood, with two species, the red ring nematode (B. cocophilus) and the pine wood nematode (B. xylophilus), economically significant as pests of coconut palms and of pine trees, respectively.

Monochamus

sawyersawyer beetles
The pine wilt nematode is vectored by a number of bark beetles and wood borers, and is most often associated with beetles in the genus Monochamus, the pine sawyers.
Some species are known to transport phoretic Bursaphelenchus nematodes, including B. xylophilus which causes pine wilt disease.

Wilt disease

Pine wiltwiltWilting
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, commonly known as pine wood nematode or pine wilt nematode (PWN), is a species of nematode that infects pine trees and causes the disease pine wilt.
Pine wilt is caused by the North American native pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). Where it is indigenous it is not major pathogen of native pine species, but in North America it causes wilt in a few non-native North American pine species.

Monochamus alternatus

As soon as the pathogen of nematode was known, Monochamus alternatus, sawyer beetle, it had been one of the noticed insects because this sawyer found frequently dead pine trees, prove the important vector of the nematode and know that the nematode infected healthy pine trees.
It serves as a vector for the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

Pinus massoniana

Chinese red pineP. massoniana
P. strobus, P. massoniana, P. resinosa, P. tabulaeformis, P. banksiana, P. contorta, P. thumb×P. masso
In the 1970s and 80s, the Pinewood nematode from North America and pine-needle scale insect from Taiwan, together virtually eliminated the native Pinus massoniana in Hong Kong.

Scots pine

pinePinus sylvestrisdeal
, P. pinaster, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. rudis, P. pseudostrobus, P. oocarpa, P. radiata, P. greggii''
Scots pines may be killed by the pine wood nematode, which causes pine wilt disease.

Pinus thunbergii

Japanese black pineBlack PineP. thunbergii
P. koraiensis, P. leiophylla, P. luchuensis, P. thunbergii, P. nigra, P. mugo, P. khasya, P. muricata
In North America this tree is subject to widespread mortality by the native American pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, spread by means of beetle vectors.

Nematode

Nematodanematodesroundworm
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, commonly known as pine wood nematode or pine wilt nematode (PWN), is a species of nematode that infects pine trees and causes the disease pine wilt.
The most important representative of this group is Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, present in Asia and America and recently discovered in Europe.

Pine

pine treepine treesPinus
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, commonly known as pine wood nematode or pine wilt nematode (PWN), is a species of nematode that infects pine trees and causes the disease pine wilt.

Japan

🇯🇵JPNJapanese
It also occurs in Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Portugal.

China

🇨🇳ChinesePeople's Republic of China
It also occurs in Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Portugal.

Taiwan

🇹🇼FormosaRepublic of China
It also occurs in Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Portugal.

Korea

KoreanKorean PeninsulaSouth Korea
It also occurs in Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Portugal.

Portugal

Portuguese🇵🇹POR
It also occurs in Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Portugal.

Nagasaki Prefecture

NagasakiNagasaki PrefecturalNagasaki, Japan
Pine mortality in Japan was first reported Munemoto Yano in Nagasaki prefecture in 1905.

Louisiana

LAState of LouisianaLa.
The nematode was first discovered in the timber of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in Louisiana, United States.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
The nematode was first discovered in the timber of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in Louisiana, United States.

Kyushu

KyūshūKyūshū IslandKyūshū region
In 1969, Japanese plant pathologists Tomoya Kiyohara and Yozan Tokushige discovered many unfamiliar nematodes on dead pine trees around the Kyushu islands in Japan.

Morphology (biology)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Species of the genus Bursaphelenchus are difficult to distinguish because they are similar in morphology.

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

RFLPPCR-RFLPpolymorphism
A positive identification can be made with molecular analyses such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

Spicule (nematode anatomy)

spiculesspiculespicule (nematode)
B. xylophilus is distinguished by three characteristics: the spicule is flattened into a disc-shaped cucullus at the tip, the front vulval lip is flap-like, and the tail of the female is rounded.

Sexual reproduction

sexuallysexualreproduce sexually
The pine wilt nematode has a typical nematode life cycle, with four juvenile stages and an adult stage with both male and female individuals that reproduce sexually.

Fungus

fungifungalnecrotrophic
The mycophagous phase of the life cycle takes place in dead or dying wood, where the nematodes live and feed upon fungi, rather than the wood itself.

Hypha

hyphaehyphalfilamentous
If living tree cells are no longer available the parasite feeds and reproduces on the fungal hyphae growing in the resin canals.

Bark beetle

bark beetlesScolytinaeelm bark beetle
The pine wilt nematode is vectored by a number of bark beetles and wood borers, and is most often associated with beetles in the genus Monochamus, the pine sawyers.