A report on Burundi

Flag of the Kingdom of Burundi (1962–1966).
Independence Square and monument in Bujumbura.
Belligerents of the Second Congo War. Burundi backed the rebels.
View of the capital city Bujumbura in 2006.
Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi in 2005–2020.
Embassy of Burundi in Brussels
Map of Burundi.
Hippos at Kibira National Park in the Northwest of Burundi
A proportional representation of Burundi exports, 2019
Historical development of GDP per capita
Graphical depiction of Burundi's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories in 2009.
Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika.
Bujumbura International Airport terminal in Bujumbura
Bicycles are a popular means of transport in Burundi
Men in colourful dresses and drums
Children in Bujumbura, Burundi
Drums from Gitega.
Football in Burundi.
Carolus Magnus School in Burundi. The school benefits from the campaign "Your Day for Africa" by Aktion Tagwerk.

Landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley where the African Great Lakes region and East Africa converge.

- Burundi

120 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Rwanda

30 links

Landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge.

Landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge.

A reconstruction of the ancient King's Palace at Nyanza
Juvénal Habyarimana, president from 1973 to 1994
Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial
Rwandan President Paul Kagame
Chamber of Deputies building
Provinces of Rwanda
The Kagera and Ruvubu rivers, part of the upper Nile
Lake and volcano in the Virunga Mountains
Volcanoes National Park is the home of the largest population of Mountain Gorillas in the world.
Giraffe in Akagera National Park
Estimated development of real GDP per capita in Rwanda, since 1950
Coffee beans drying in Maraba. Coffee is one of Rwanda's major cash crops.
Mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park
Rural water pump
Rural children
Children in a Rwandan primary school, using laptops supplied by the One Laptop Per Child program
Butaro Hospital at Burera, Northern Province
Historical development of life expectancy in Rwanda
Roman Catholic church in Rwamagana
Traditional Rwandan intore dancers
Rwandan woven agaseke basket
Adrien Niyonshuti, "one of the most famous people in Rwanda", competing in the cross-country mountain biking event at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Topography of Rwanda
Graphical depiction of Rwanda's product exports.
Rwanda produced 2.6 million tons of banana in 2019, its largest cash crop.
Rwanda electricity production by source
A plate of ugali and cabbage.

Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

18 links

Country in Central Africa.

Country in Central Africa.

View of Leopoldville Station and Port in 1884
1908 photograph of a married Christian couple.
Force Publique soldiers in the Belgian Congo in 1918. At its peak, the Force Publique had around 19,000 Congolese soldiers, led by 420 Belgian officers.
The leader of ABAKO, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, first democratically elected President of Congo-Léopoldville
Patrice Lumumba, first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Congo-Léopoldville, was murdered by Belgian-supported Katangan separatists in 1961
Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C., 1973.
Mobutu with the Dutch Prince Bernhard in Kinshasa in 1973
Belligerents of the Second Congo War
Refugees in the Congo
People fleeing their villages due to fighting between FARDC and rebel groups, North Kivu, 2012
Government troops near Goma during the M23 rebellion in May 2013
DR Congo's President Félix Tshisekedi with neighbouring Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso in 2020; both wear face masks due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo map of Köppen climate classification
Ituri Rainforest
Mount Nyiragongo, which last erupted in 2021.
Salonga National Park.
Masisi Territory
Lake Kivu in North Kivu province
Bas-Congo landscape
An Okapi
A male western gorilla
Hippopotami
Joseph Kabila was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from January 2001 to January 2019.
President Joseph Kabila with U.S. President Barack Obama in August 2014
FARDC soldiers on patrol in Ituri province
A group of demobilized child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
A proportional representation of Democratic Republic of the Congo exports, 2019
Change in per capita GDP of Congo, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Rough diamonds ≈1 to 1.5 mm in size from DR Congo.
DR Congo's Human Development Index scores, 1970–2010.
Collecting firewood in Basankusu.
Train from Lubumbashi arriving in Kindu on a newly refurbished line.
Map of rail network
Major Bantu languages in the Congo
Kongo youth and adults in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Amani festival in Goma
Family in Rutshuru, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
The population pyramid of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Our Lady of Peace Cathedral in Bukavu
A classroom in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Development of life expectancy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population fleeing their villages due to fighting between FARDC and rebels groups, Sake North Kivu 30 April 2012
A Hemba male statue
Stade des Martyrs in Kinshasa.
The Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral, Lubumbashi

The DRC is located in sub-Saharan Africa, bordered to the northwest by the Republic of the Congo, to the north by the Central African Republic, to the northeast by South Sudan, to the east by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, and by Tanzania (across Lake Tanganyika), to the south and southeast by Zambia, to the southwest by Angola, and to the west by the South Atlantic Ocean and the Cabinda exclave of Angola.

Tanzania

12 links

Country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

Country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

A 1.8-million-year-old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and on display at the British Museum.
A 1572 depiction of the portuguese city of Kilwa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Battle during the Maji Maji Rebellion against German colonial rule in 1905.
The Arusha Declaration Monument
Wildebeest migration in the Serengeti
Tanzania map of Köppen climate classification
The Masai giraffe is Tanzania's national animal
The semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago
Regions of Tanzania
Tanzanian ambassador to Russia Jaka Mwambi presenting his credentials to the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Tanzanian Embassy in West End, Washington, D.C., USA
FIB Tanzanian special forces during training
A proportional representation of Tanzania exports, 2019
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Tanzania, since 1950
Tea fields in Tukuyu
Nyerere Bridge in Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam
The snowcapped Uhuru Peak
One of the main trunk roads
Zanzibar harbour
Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.3
A Tanzanian woman cooks Pilau rice dish wearing traditional Kanga.
Farmers using a rice harvester to harvest rice in Igunga District, Tanzania
Example of a World Food Programme parcel
Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year
Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded
The Hadza live as hunter-gatherers.
A carved door with Arabic calligraphy in Zanzibar
Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam
Development of life expectancy
Tanzanian woman harvest tea leaves
Judith Wambura (Lady Jaydee) is a popular Bongo Flava recording singer.
A Tingatinga painting
National Stadium in Dar es Salaam.
St Joseph's Catholic cathedral, Zanzibar
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha
East African Legislative Assembly in Arusha
Tanzanian Ngoma group

It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands and the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

Buyoya, pictured at Chatham House in 2013

Pierre Buyoya

11 links

Buyoya, pictured at Chatham House in 2013
Buyoya in 1990

Pierre Buyoya (24 November 1949 – 17 December 2020) was a Burundian army officer and politician who served two terms as President of Burundi in 1987 to 1993 and 1996 to 2003 as de facto military dictator.

A traditional Hutu throwing knife.

Hutu

9 links

Native to the African Great Lakes region of Africa.

Native to the African Great Lakes region of Africa.

A traditional Hutu throwing knife.
Hutu and other Rwandan children in Virunga National Park

They mainly live in Rwanda, Burundi and the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they form one of the principal ethnic groups alongside the Tutsi and the Great Lakes Twa.

Lake Tanganyika from space, June 1985

Lake Tanganyika

8 links

African Great Lake.

African Great Lake.

Lake Tanganyika from space, June 1985
Lake Tanganyika eastern Shore in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma Region, Tanzania
Clear water lake on Lake Tanganyika in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma Region, Tanzania
A biologist collecting samples in 2020 in the murky waters of Lake Tanganyika for a study on the diet adaptations of cichlid fishes to better understand their evolution and speciation.
One of the many Tanganyika cichlids is Neolamprologus brichardi. The complex behaviors of this species and its close relative N. pulcher have been studied in detail
The Tanganyika killifish (Lamprichthys tanganicanus) is the only member of its genus
The shell of the endemic thalassoid freshwater snail Tiphobia horei with its elaborate shape and spines.
Fishing Boat in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma District
Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika. The black line indicates Henry Morton Stanley's route.
Water in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma District
Bathybatini (E): Bathybates ferox is benthic and piscivorous, but the genus also includes pelagic species. The tribe is sometimes split in three, others being Hemibatini and Trematocarini<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Meyer, Matchiner, and Salburger| year=2015| title=Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?|journal=PLOS ONE| volume=10| issue=7| doi= 10.1371/journal.pone.0125043| pmid=25928886| page=e0125043| pmc=4415804| bibcode=2015PLoSO..1025043W| doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name=Weiss2015>{{Cite journal|last=Weiss, Cotterill, and Schliewen|year=2015|title=A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach|journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|volume=83|pages=56–71|doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2014.10.009|pmid=25433288|pmc=4334724}}</ref>
Benthochromini (E): Benthochromis horii was scientifically described in 2008, but has often been misidentifed as B. tricoti<ref>{{cite journal |title= Description of a new cichlid fish species of the genus Benthochromis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika |last1=Takahashi |journal= Journal of Fish Biology |volume= 72|issue=3 |pages= 603–613 |year=2008 |doi= 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01727.x |first1=T.}}</ref>
Boulengerochromini (E): Boulengerochromis microlepis is one of the world's largest cichlids and only member of its tribe
Cyphotilapiini (E): Cyphotilapia frontosa, one of only two similar species in the tribe<ref>{{cite journal |last1= Takahashi |first1= T. |last2= Nakaya |first2= K. |year= 2003 |title= New species of Cyphotilapia (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika, Africa |journal= Copeia |volume= 2003 |issue= 4 |pages= 824–832 |doi= 10.1643/ia03-148.1|s2cid= 83854866 }}</ref>
Cyprichromini (E): Cyprichromis microlepidotus and other members of this tribe are open-water planktivores<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Bigirimana, C. |date=2006 |title=Cyprichromis microlepidotus |volume=2006 |page=e.T60487A12363286 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60487A12363286.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref><ref name=Smith1998>Smith, M.P. (1998). Lake Tanganyikan Cichlids, pp. 9-10. {{ISBN|0-7641-0615-5}}</ref>
Ectodini (E): Ophthalmotilapia nasuta (male) is sexually dimorphic, males being more colorful with longer fins and nose<ref>SeriouslyFish: Ophthalmotilapia nasuta. Retrieved 6 April 2017.</ref>
Eretmodini (E): Eretmodus cyanostictus lives near the bottom in the turbulent, coastal surf zone,<ref>{{FishBase | genus = Eretmodus | species = cyanostictus | month = April| year = 2017}}</ref> like other members of its tribe
Haplochromini: Astatotilapia burtoni is one of the few Tanganyika species, unlike other African Great Lakes where most belong to this tribe<ref name=Lowe2009>{{cite journal | last1 = Lowe-McConnell | first1 = R | year = 2009 | title = Fisheries and cichlid evolution in the African Great Lakes: progress and problems | journal = Freshwater Reviews | volume = 2 | issue = 2| pages = 131–151 | doi=10.1608/frj-2.2.2| s2cid = 54011001 }}</ref>
Lamprologini (E): Julidochromis marlieri is popular in the aquarium trade where members of the genus are known as "Julies"<ref>SeriouslyFish: Julidochromis marlieri. Retrieved 6 April 2017.</ref>
Limnochromini (E): Gnathochromis permaxillaris is a zooplanktivore with an unusual protractile mouth<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Bigirimana, C. |date=2006 |title=Gnathochromis permaxillaris |volume=2006 |page=e.T60493A12364587 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60493A12364587.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref>
Perissodini (E): Perissodus microlepis, a specialized scale-eating species<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Stewart | first1 = T.A. | last2 = Albertson | first2 = R.C. | year = 2010 | title = Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids | journal = BMC Biology | volume = 8 | issue = 1| page = 8 | doi = 10.1186/1741-7007-8-8 | pmid = 20102595 | pmc = 2828976 }}</ref>
Tilapiini: Oreochromis tanganicae is one of the most common coastal species found in local fish markets<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Ntakimazi, G. |date=2006 |title=Oreochromis tanganicae |volume=2006 |page=e.T60625A12387918 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60625A12387918.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref>
Tropheini (E): Tropheus moorii ("red" Chimba morph) is highly variable and the taxonomy of some of the morphs is questionable<ref>Begon, M.; and A.H. Fitter (1995). Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 26, p. 203. {{ISBN|0-12-013926-X}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Salzburger | last2 = Niederstätter | last3 = Brandstätter | last4 = Berger | last5 = Parson | last6 = Snoeks | last7 = Sturmbauer | year = 2006 | title = Colour-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa | journal = Proc Biol Sci | volume = 273 | issue = 1584| pages = 257–266 | doi=10.1098/rspb.2005.3321 | pmid=16543167 | pmc=1560039}}</ref><ref>Toman, R. (1995). Tropheus Evolution In Lake Tanganyika. Cichlidworld. Retrieved 7 April 2017.</ref>

The lake is shared among four countries—Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania (46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake.

Paul Kagame, a Tutsi and the President of Rwanda

Tutsi

8 links

Ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.

Ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.

Paul Kagame, a Tutsi and the President of Rwanda
Ange Kagame, daughter of Paul Kagame.
Flag of the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front.
A traditional Tutsi wrist guard (igitembe).
A traditional Tutsi basket.

They are a Bantu-speaking ethnic group and the second largest of three main ethnic groups in Rwanda and Burundi (the other two being the largest Bantu ethnic group Hutu and the Pygmy group of the Twa).

People fleeing during 1993 Burundian genocide that marked the civil war's start

Burundian Civil War

7 links

People fleeing during 1993 Burundian genocide that marked the civil war's start
Location of Burundi in Central Africa
The death of President Melchior Ndadaye (pictured 1993) was one of the civil war's main causes
Building torched during the 1993 genocide
Ex-President Pierre Buyoya took over the Burundian government in the 1996 coup
Hutu rebels regularly attacked Bujumbura (center of the map) from the forested mountains around it
Pierre Nkurunziza was elected president in 2005
Burundian government soldiers in 2006, shortly after the conflict's end.

The Burundian Civil War was a civil war in Burundi lasting from 1993 to 2005.

Swahili in Arabic script—memorial plate at the Askari Monument, Dar es Salaam (1927)

Swahili language

6 links

Native language of the Waswahili who are found along the East African coast and litoral islands .

Native language of the Waswahili who are found along the East African coast and litoral islands .

Swahili in Arabic script—memorial plate at the Askari Monument, Dar es Salaam (1927)
Although originally written with the Arabic script, Swahili is now written in a Latin alphabet introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators. The text shown here is the Catholic version of the Lord's Prayer.
Swahili in Arabic script on the clothes of a girl in German East Africa (ca. early 1900s)
Loxodonta africana elephants frolic in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, 2012.

Due to concerted efforts by the government of Tanzania, Swahili is one of three official languages (the others being English and French) of the East African Community (EAC) countries, namely Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).

East Africa

6 links

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

Eastern subregion of the African continent.

Image of the region between Lake Victoria (on the right) and Lakes Edward, Kivu and Tanganyika (from north to south) showing dense vegetation (bright green) and fires (red).
The Bab-el-Mandeb crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, narrower in prehistory.
Early Iron Age findings in East and Southern Africa
Map of British East Africa in 1911

Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan are members of the East African Community. The first five are also included in the African Great Lakes region. Burundi and Rwanda are at times also considered to be part of Central Africa.