A report on Burundi and Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika from space, June 1985
Lake Tanganyika eastern Shore in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma Region, Tanzania
Flag of the Kingdom of Burundi (1962–1966).
Clear water lake on Lake Tanganyika in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma Region, Tanzania
Independence Square and monument in Bujumbura.
A biologist collecting samples in 2020 in the murky waters of Lake Tanganyika for a study on the diet adaptations of cichlid fishes to better understand their evolution and speciation.
Belligerents of the Second Congo War. Burundi backed the rebels.
One of the many Tanganyika cichlids is Neolamprologus brichardi. The complex behaviors of this species and its close relative N. pulcher have been studied in detail
View of the capital city Bujumbura in 2006.
The Tanganyika killifish (Lamprichthys tanganicanus) is the only member of its genus
Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi in 2005–2020.
The shell of the endemic thalassoid freshwater snail Tiphobia horei with its elaborate shape and spines.
Embassy of Burundi in Brussels
Fishing Boat in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma District
Map of Burundi.
Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika
Hippos at Kibira National Park in the Northwest of Burundi
Lake Tanganyika. The black line indicates Henry Morton Stanley's route.
A proportional representation of Burundi exports, 2019
Water in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma District
Historical development of GDP per capita
Bathybatini (E): Bathybates ferox is benthic and piscivorous, but the genus also includes pelagic species. The tribe is sometimes split in three, others being Hemibatini and Trematocarini<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Meyer, Matchiner, and Salburger| year=2015| title=Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?|journal=PLOS ONE| volume=10| issue=7| doi= 10.1371/journal.pone.0125043| pmid=25928886| page=e0125043| pmc=4415804| bibcode=2015PLoSO..1025043W| doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name=Weiss2015>{{Cite journal|last=Weiss, Cotterill, and Schliewen|year=2015|title=A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach|journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|volume=83|pages=56–71|doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2014.10.009|pmid=25433288|pmc=4334724}}</ref>
Graphical depiction of Burundi's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories in 2009.
Benthochromini (E): Benthochromis horii was scientifically described in 2008, but has often been misidentifed as B. tricoti<ref>{{cite journal |title= Description of a new cichlid fish species of the genus Benthochromis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika |last1=Takahashi |journal= Journal of Fish Biology |volume= 72|issue=3 |pages= 603–613 |year=2008 |doi= 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01727.x |first1=T.}}</ref>
Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika.
Boulengerochromini (E): Boulengerochromis microlepis is one of the world's largest cichlids and only member of its tribe
Bujumbura International Airport terminal in Bujumbura
Cyphotilapiini (E): Cyphotilapia frontosa, one of only two similar species in the tribe<ref>{{cite journal |last1= Takahashi |first1= T. |last2= Nakaya |first2= K. |year= 2003 |title= New species of Cyphotilapia (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika, Africa |journal= Copeia |volume= 2003 |issue= 4 |pages= 824–832 |doi= 10.1643/ia03-148.1|s2cid= 83854866 }}</ref>
Bicycles are a popular means of transport in Burundi
Cyprichromini (E): Cyprichromis microlepidotus and other members of this tribe are open-water planktivores<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Bigirimana, C. |date=2006 |title=Cyprichromis microlepidotus |volume=2006 |page=e.T60487A12363286 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60487A12363286.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref><ref name=Smith1998>Smith, M.P. (1998). Lake Tanganyikan Cichlids, pp. 9-10. {{ISBN|0-7641-0615-5}}</ref>
Men in colourful dresses and drums
Ectodini (E): Ophthalmotilapia nasuta (male) is sexually dimorphic, males being more colorful with longer fins and nose<ref>SeriouslyFish: Ophthalmotilapia nasuta. Retrieved 6 April 2017.</ref>
Children in Bujumbura, Burundi
Eretmodini (E): Eretmodus cyanostictus lives near the bottom in the turbulent, coastal surf zone,<ref>{{FishBase | genus = Eretmodus | species = cyanostictus | month = April| year = 2017}}</ref> like other members of its tribe
Drums from Gitega.
Haplochromini: Astatotilapia burtoni is one of the few Tanganyika species, unlike other African Great Lakes where most belong to this tribe<ref name=Lowe2009>{{cite journal | last1 = Lowe-McConnell | first1 = R | year = 2009 | title = Fisheries and cichlid evolution in the African Great Lakes: progress and problems | journal = Freshwater Reviews | volume = 2 | issue = 2| pages = 131–151 | doi=10.1608/frj-2.2.2| s2cid = 54011001 }}</ref>
Football in Burundi.
Lamprologini (E): Julidochromis marlieri is popular in the aquarium trade where members of the genus are known as "Julies"<ref>SeriouslyFish: Julidochromis marlieri. Retrieved 6 April 2017.</ref>
Carolus Magnus School in Burundi. The school benefits from the campaign "Your Day for Africa" by Aktion Tagwerk.
Limnochromini (E): Gnathochromis permaxillaris is a zooplanktivore with an unusual protractile mouth<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Bigirimana, C. |date=2006 |title=Gnathochromis permaxillaris |volume=2006 |page=e.T60493A12364587 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60493A12364587.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref>
Perissodini (E): Perissodus microlepis, a specialized scale-eating species<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Stewart | first1 = T.A. | last2 = Albertson | first2 = R.C. | year = 2010 | title = Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids | journal = BMC Biology | volume = 8 | issue = 1| page = 8 | doi = 10.1186/1741-7007-8-8 | pmid = 20102595 | pmc = 2828976 }}</ref>
Tilapiini: Oreochromis tanganicae is one of the most common coastal species found in local fish markets<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Ntakimazi, G. |date=2006 |title=Oreochromis tanganicae |volume=2006 |page=e.T60625A12387918 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60625A12387918.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref>
Tropheini (E): Tropheus moorii ("red" Chimba morph) is highly variable and the taxonomy of some of the morphs is questionable<ref>Begon, M.; and A.H. Fitter (1995). Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 26, p. 203. {{ISBN|0-12-013926-X}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Salzburger | last2 = Niederstätter | last3 = Brandstätter | last4 = Berger | last5 = Parson | last6 = Snoeks | last7 = Sturmbauer | year = 2006 | title = Colour-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa | journal = Proc Biol Sci | volume = 273 | issue = 1584| pages = 257–266 | doi=10.1098/rspb.2005.3321 | pmid=16543167 | pmc=1560039}}</ref><ref>Toman, R. (1995). Tropheus Evolution In Lake Tanganyika. Cichlidworld. Retrieved 7 April 2017.</ref>

It is bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and southeast, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Lake Tanganyika lies along its southwestern border.

- Burundi

The lake is shared among four countries—Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Zambia, with Tanzania (46%) and DRC (40%) possessing the majority of the lake.

- Lake Tanganyika

8 related topics with Alpha



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Country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

Country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

A 1.8-million-year-old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and on display at the British Museum.
A 1572 depiction of the portuguese city of Kilwa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Battle during the Maji Maji Rebellion against German colonial rule in 1905.
The Arusha Declaration Monument
Wildebeest migration in the Serengeti
Tanzania map of Köppen climate classification
The Masai giraffe is Tanzania's national animal
The semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago
Regions of Tanzania
Tanzanian ambassador to Russia Jaka Mwambi presenting his credentials to the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Tanzanian Embassy in West End, Washington, D.C., USA
FIB Tanzanian special forces during training
A proportional representation of Tanzania exports, 2019
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Tanzania, since 1950
Tea fields in Tukuyu
Nyerere Bridge in Kigamboni, Dar es Salaam
The snowcapped Uhuru Peak
One of the main trunk roads
Zanzibar harbour
Domestic expenditure on research in Southern Africa as a percentage of GDP, 2012 or closest year. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.3
A Tanzanian woman cooks Pilau rice dish wearing traditional Kanga.
Farmers using a rice harvester to harvest rice in Igunga District, Tanzania
Example of a World Food Programme parcel
Researchers (HC) in Southern Africa per million inhabitants, 2013 or closest year
Scientific publications per million inhabitants in SADC countries in 2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded
The Hadza live as hunter-gatherers.
A carved door with Arabic calligraphy in Zanzibar
Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam
Development of life expectancy
Tanzanian woman harvest tea leaves
Judith Wambura (Lady Jaydee) is a popular Bongo Flava recording singer.
A Tingatinga painting
National Stadium in Dar es Salaam.
St Joseph's Catholic cathedral, Zanzibar
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha
East African Legislative Assembly in Arusha
Tanzanian Ngoma group

It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands and the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas.

Satellite view of the African Great Lakes region and its coastline.

African Great Lakes

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The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu, Ibiyaga bigari) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.

The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu, Ibiyaga bigari) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.

Satellite view of the African Great Lakes region and its coastline.
The African Great Lakes system, in blue.
Map of larger region including the East African Rift and the entire so-called Great Rift Valley

They include Lake Victoria, the second-largest fresh water lake in the world by area, Lake Tanganyika, the world's second-largest freshwater lake by volume and depth, and Lake Malawi, the world's eighth-largest fresh water lake by area.

Riparian countries in the African Great Lakes region include: Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Zambia, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Country in Central Africa.

Country in Central Africa.

View of Leopoldville Station and Port in 1884
1908 photograph of a married Christian couple.
Force Publique soldiers in the Belgian Congo in 1918. At its peak, the Force Publique had around 19,000 Congolese soldiers, led by 420 Belgian officers.
The leader of ABAKO, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, first democratically elected President of Congo-Léopoldville
Patrice Lumumba, first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Congo-Léopoldville, was murdered by Belgian-supported Katangan separatists in 1961
Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C., 1973.
Mobutu with the Dutch Prince Bernhard in Kinshasa in 1973
Belligerents of the Second Congo War
Refugees in the Congo
People fleeing their villages due to fighting between FARDC and rebel groups, North Kivu, 2012
Government troops near Goma during the M23 rebellion in May 2013
DR Congo's President Félix Tshisekedi with neighbouring Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso in 2020; both wear face masks due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The map of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo map of Köppen climate classification
Ituri Rainforest
Mount Nyiragongo, which last erupted in 2021.
Salonga National Park.
Masisi Territory
Lake Kivu in North Kivu province
Bas-Congo landscape
An Okapi
A male western gorilla
Joseph Kabila was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from January 2001 to January 2019.
President Joseph Kabila with U.S. President Barack Obama in August 2014
FARDC soldiers on patrol in Ituri province
A group of demobilized child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
A proportional representation of Democratic Republic of the Congo exports, 2019
Change in per capita GDP of Congo, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Rough diamonds ≈1 to 1.5 mm in size from DR Congo.
DR Congo's Human Development Index scores, 1970–2010.
Collecting firewood in Basankusu.
Train from Lubumbashi arriving in Kindu on a newly refurbished line.
Map of rail network
Major Bantu languages in the Congo
Kongo youth and adults in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Amani festival in Goma
Family in Rutshuru, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
The population pyramid of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Our Lady of Peace Cathedral in Bukavu
A classroom in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Development of life expectancy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population fleeing their villages due to fighting between FARDC and rebels groups, Sake North Kivu 30 April 2012
A Hemba male statue
Stade des Martyrs in Kinshasa.
The Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral, Lubumbashi

The DRC is located in sub-Saharan Africa, bordered to the northwest by the Republic of the Congo, to the north by the Central African Republic, to the northeast by South Sudan, to the east by Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, and by Tanzania (across Lake Tanganyika), to the south and southeast by Zambia, to the southwest by Angola, and to the west by the South Atlantic Ocean and the Cabinda exclave of Angola.

Landsat 7 imagery of Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria

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One of the African Great Lakes.

One of the African Great Lakes.

Landsat 7 imagery of Lake Victoria
Victoria Nyanza. The black line indicates Stanley's route.
Topographical map of Lake Victoria
Lake Victoria and the Great Rift Valley
Lake Victoria bathymetric model
Unlike many other Lake Victoria cichlids, Haplochromis nyererei remains common. Compared to several other cichlids, its eyes are particularly sensitive to light, especially red, which is less affected by the decrease in water clarity caused by eutrophication than short wavelength colors
Haplochromis thereuterion survives in low numbers. Initially feared extinct, when rediscovered it had changed habitat (from near surface to rocky outcrops) and feeding behavior (from surface insects to insect larvae)
Fishers and their boats on the shore of Lake Victoria
The Nile perch was introduced to Lake Victoria for fishing, and can reach up to 2 m and 200 kg.
A hyacinth-choked lakeshore at Ndere Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya.
Population density around Lake Victoria
Bismarck Rock
The lake as it is visible from the shores of the Speke Resort in Kampala, Uganda
The Nalubaale Hydroelectric Power Station in Njeru, Uganda.

However, the most distal source of the Nile Basin, and therefore the ultimate source of the Nile, is more often considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River (the exact tributary remains undetermined), and which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi.

Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile River, which Burton regarded as still unsettled.

An artificial rendering of the Albertine Rift. Visible features include (from background to foreground, looking north): Lake Albert, Rwenzori Mountains, Lake Edward, Virunga Mountains, Lake Kivu, and northern Lake Tanganyika

Albertine Rift

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An artificial rendering of the Albertine Rift. Visible features include (from background to foreground, looking north): Lake Albert, Rwenzori Mountains, Lake Edward, Virunga Mountains, Lake Kivu, and northern Lake Tanganyika
Map of the region showing the Albertine Rift to the west
Mount Stanley in the Rwenzori range. With an elevation of 5,109 m (16,763 ft), it is the tallest mountain in the Albertine Rift and the third tallest in Africa.

The Albertine Rift is the western branch of the East African Rift, covering parts of Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania.

It extends from the northern end of Lake Albert to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika.

German East Africa

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Green: German East Africa Dark gray: Other German possessions Darkest gray: German Empire (1911 borders)
Askari soldiers under German command, 1896
Green: German East Africa Dark gray: Other German possessions Darkest gray: German Empire (1911 borders)
Fort Bagamoyo, c. 1891
1 rupee, German East Africa, 1902. Silver 917.
A World War I memorial in Iringa, Tanzania
The Portuguese were flanked by the Germans, while encamped at Ngomano on 25 November 1917.
Historical map of the German East African coast, 1888
Historical map of German East Africa, 1892
Historical map of German East Africa, 1911
Map of the East African Theater in World War I
Sisal plantation, {{circa|1906/18}}
Sisal factory, {{circa|1906/18}}
Askari company, {{circa|1914/18}}
Classroom in a German East African school, {{circa|March 1914}}
Usambara Railway, built in German East Africa
German colonial volunteer mounted patrol, 1914
Proposed flag
Proposed coat of arms

German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, the Tanzania mainland, and the Kionga Triangle, a small region later incorporated into Mozambique.

The final link to the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika was completed in July 1914 and was cause for a huge and festive celebration in the capital with an agricultural fair and trade exhibition.


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Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

The Nile's drainage basin
Spring at Lake Victoria
White Nile in Uganda
Nile Delta from space
The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm
Map of Nile tributaries in modern Sudan, showing the Yellow Nile
Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), an ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BC
An aerial view of irrigation from the Nile River supporting agriculture in Luxor, Egypt
A felucca traversing the Nile near Aswan
John Hanning Speke c. 1863. Speke was the Victorian explorer who first reached Lake Victoria in 1858, returning to establish it as the source of the Nile by 1862.
A map of the Nile c. 1911, a time when its entire primary course ran through British occupations, condominiums, colonies, and protectorates
The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches
Dhows on the Nile
The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city.
Hydropower dams in the Nile (plus huge dam under construction in Ethiopia)
View of the Qasr El Nil Bridge in Cairo, with Gezira Island in the background
El Mek Nimr Bridge in Khartoum
Henry Morton Stanley in 1872. Stanley circumnavigated the lake and confirmed Speke's observations in 1875.
Composite satellite image of the White Nile
Village on the Nile, 1891
Riverboat on the Nile, Egypt 1900
Marsh along the Nile
A river boat crossing the Nile in Uganda
Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga
The Nile in Luxor
The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite
The Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Nile in Cairo

About 6650 km long, its drainage basin covers eleven countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan, and Egypt.

Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda.


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The Kigoma port during the day time.
The Kigoma rail station during the day time.

Kigoma is a city and lake port in Kigoma-Ujiji District in Tanzania, on the northeastern shores of Lake Tanganyika and close to the border with Burundi and The Democratic Republic of the Congo.