A report on MongolsBuryats and Inner Mongolia

Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )
A Buryat wrestling match during the Altargana Festival
Asia in 500, showing the Rouran Khaganate and its neighbors, including the Northern Wei and the Tuyuhun Khanate, all of them were established by Proto-Mongols
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
Mongol man with a hat, Yuan dynasty
Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1925.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Mongol wearing a hat, 14th c.
Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1929.
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Yuan dynasty Mongol rider
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1989
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
A portrait of Kublai Khan by Araniko (1245–1306)
Map of autonomous Buryat territories (until 2008): Republic of Buryatia and autonomous okrugs of Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Mongol huntsmen, Ming dynasty
Traditional wooden hut of Buryatia
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
The Northern Yuan dynasty and Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
Traditional Buryat dress
Inner Mongolian steppes
Map showing wars between Qing Dynasty and Dzungar Khanate
Buryat shaman of Olkhon, Lake Baikal
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
A Dzungar soldier called Ayusi from the high Qing era, by Giuseppe Castiglione, 1755
Ivolginsky Datsan is a monastery complex consisting of seven Buddhist temples
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1755 between the Qing (that ruled China at the time) and Mongol Dzungar armies. The fall of the Dzungar Khanate
Sagaalgan (from the Buryat language, meaning “White Month") is a Buddhist festival marking the beginning of the New Year and the coming of spring.
Theater in Hohhot
Khorloogiin Choibalsan, leader of the Mongolian People's Republic (left), and Georgy Zhukov consult during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol against Japanese troops, 1939
Buuz, a steamed meat dumpling, is probably the most iconic dish of Buryat cuisine
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
World War II Zaisan Memorial, Ulaan Baatar, from the People's Republic of Mongolia era.
Buryat women
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (right)
Mongol states in the 14th to 17th centuries.
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
A Mongolic Ger
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Chronological tree of the Mongolic languages
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Buddhist temple in Buryatia, Russia
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Timur of Mongolic origin himself had converted almost all the Borjigin leaders to Islam.
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Mongols grazing livestock, by Roy Chapman Andrews photographs in 1921
Ulaanbutan grassland
Mural of a Mongol family, Yuan dynasty
Inner Mongolian grassland
The Mughal Emperor Babur and his heir Humayun. The word Mughal is derived from the Persian word for Mongol.
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire and location of today's Mongols in modern Mongolia, Russia and China.
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Mongol women in traditional dress
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Strong Mongol men at August games. Photo by Wm. Purdom, 1909
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Mongol Empress Zayaat (Jiyatu), wife of Kulug Khan (1281–1311)
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Genghis' son Tolui with Queen Sorgaqtani
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Hulegu Khan, ruler of the Ilkhanate
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
13th century Ilkhanid Mongol archer
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Mongol soldiers by Rashid al-Din, BnF. MS. Supplément Persan 1113. 1430-1434 AD.
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Kalmyk Mongol girl Annushka (painted in 1767)
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
A 20th-century Mongol Khan, Navaanneren
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Dolgorsürengiin Dagvadorj became the first Mongol to reach sumo's highest rank.
Alshaa mountain scenery
Mongol women archers during Naadam festival
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756
A Mongol musician
A Mongol Wrangler
Buryat Mongol shaman
Kalmyks, 19th century
Mongol girl performing Bayad dance
Buryat Mongols (painted in 1840)
Daur Mongol Empress Wanrong (1906–1946), also had Borjigin blood on maternal side.
Buryat Mongol boy during shamanic rite
Concubine Wenxiu was Puyi's consort
A Mongolian Buddhist monk, 1913

The Mongols (Монголчууд,, Moŋğolçuud, ; ; Монголы) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia, Inner Mongolia in China and the Buryatia Republic of the Russian Federation.

- Mongols

The Buryats (Буриад) are a Mongolian people numbering at 516,476, comprising one of the two largest indigenous groups in Siberia, the other being the Yakuts.

- Buryats

The Oirats in Western Mongolia as well as the Buryats and Kalmyks of Russia are classified either as distinct ethno-linguistic groups or subgroups of Mongols.

- Mongols

Buryats also live in Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (Irkutsk Oblast) to the west of Buryatia and Agin-Buryat Okrug (Zabaykalsky Krai) to the east of Buryatia as well as in northeastern Mongolia and in Inner Mongolia, China.

- Buryats

After Genghis Khan unified the Mongol tribes in 1206 and founded the Mongol Empire, the Tangut Western Xia empire was ultimately conquered in 1227, and the Jurchen Jin dynasty fell in 1234.

- Inner Mongolia

They include many diverse Mongolian-speaking groups; groups such as the Buryats and the Oirats are also officially considered to be Mongols in China.

- Inner Mongolia
Image of a Mongolian lady (incorrectly identified as Genepil, Queen consort of Mongolia )

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Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

Landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south.

7th-century artifacts found 180 km from Ulaanbaatar.
Mongol Empire expansion (1206 till 1294)
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols. The red area shows where the majority of Mongolian speakers reside today.
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent.
Genghis Khan the first Mongol Emperor
Altan Khan (1507–1582) founded the city of Hohhot, helped introduce Buddhism and originated the title of Dalai Lama
The eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Bogd Khaan
Map of unified Mongolia in 1917
Khorloogiin Choibalsan led Mongolia during the Stalinist era and presided over an environment of intense political persecution
Mongolian troops fight against the Japanese counterattack at Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Mongolian Premier Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was the longest-serving leader in the Soviet Bloc, with over 44 years in office
The southern portion of Mongolia is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.
Mongolia map of Köppen climate classification zones.
The Khentii Mountains in Terelj, close to the birthplace of Genghis Khan.
Bactrian camels by sand dunes in Gobi Desert.
Mongolian steppe
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Amarbayasgalant Monastery
State Great Khural chamber in session
Mongolia's President Tsakhia Elbegdorj with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, June 2016
Mongolia's President Khaltmaagiin Battulga and Vladimir Putin in Vladivostok, September 2017
Mongolian, Chinese and Russian national flags set on armored vehicles during the large-scale military exercise Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mongolia
A proportional representation of Mongolia exports, 2019
View of Ulaanbaatar with the Blue Sky Tower
Oyu Tolgoi employs 18,000 workers and expects to be producing 450,000 tonnes of copper a year by 2020
Train in Zamyn-Üüd station in Dornogovi aimag
While the Mongolian horse continues to be revered as the national symbol, they are rapidly being replaced by motorized vehicles.
Mongolian ferry Sukhbaatar on Lake Khovsgol in Khovsgol Province
A ger in front of the Gurvan Saikhan Mountains
Musician playing the traditional Mongolian musical instrument morin khuur
Mongolian media interviewing the opposition Mongolian Green Party in 2008. The media has gained significant freedoms since democratic reforms initiated in the 1990s.
Naadam is the largest summer celebration.
Riders during Naadam festival
Kazakh hunters in Mongolia with eagles
1236-1242 Mongol invasions of Europe

After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.

By 1636 most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchus, who founded the Qing dynasty.

In 1930, the Soviet Union stopped Buryat migration to the Mongolian People's Republic to prevent Mongolian reunification.

Khalkha Mongols during the early Northern Yuan period.

Khalkha Mongols

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Khalkha Mongols during the early Northern Yuan period.
The Turco-Mongol residual states and domains by the 15th century
The Erdene Zuu Monastery was established in the 16th century by Abatai Sain Khan in the heartland of the Khalkha territory
"The Country of the Khalkha" (Pays des Kalkas) on a 1734 map by d'Anville, based on Jesuits' fieldwork ca. 1700
Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren of Khalkha, a leader of the National Liberation Movement of 1911
Former Queen Consort of Mongolia, Genepil

The Khalkha (Халх, ) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in modern Mongolia since the 15th century.

Dayan Khan created Khalkha Tumen out of Mongols residing in the territory of present-day central Mongolia and northern part of Inner Mongolia.

The Halh Mongols in Qinghai, China and the ones among the Buriats in Russia were subjects to Khalkha's Tsogtu Khan and his sons.

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.

Northern Yuan

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Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.
Location of the Oirats
The tumens of the Mongolian Plateau and relict states of the Mongol Empire by 1500
Realm of Altan Khan in 1571
Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery established by Abtai Khan in the Khalkha heartland in the 16th century.
The White House of Tsogt Taij (White Castle) was built in 1601.
Major Mongol and Jurchen rulers prior to the Jurchen unification
Chahar-Jurchen War, 1619–1634
The various regimes on the Mongolian Plateau after the proclamation of Qing dynasty
Dzungar–Qing Wars, 1687–1757

The Northern Yuan was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

1333–1370), the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) from Dadu upon the approach of Ming forces.

Choros, Olots, Durvud, Khoid, Baatud, Torghut, Khoshut, Ur (Ör) Mongol, Barga Mongols and Buryats. The Barga and Buryats later became subject of Khalkha.

Mongol Empire c. 1207, Khongirad and their neighbours


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One of the major divisions of the Mongol tribes.

One of the major divisions of the Mongol tribes.

Mongol Empire c. 1207, Khongirad and their neighbours
Empress Radnashiri was from the Khunggirad

Their homeland was located in the vicinity of Lake Hulun in Inner Mongolia and Khalkha River in Mongolia, where they maintained close ties with the ruling dynasties of northern China.

Shamanic practices continue in present-day Mongol culture.

The Qongyrat tribe of Kazakhs are notable for the extremely high frequency among them (64/95 = 67.37% ) of Y-DNA that belongs to haplogroup C-M407 (younger than 7000 years ), a clade that otherwise has been observed with greatest frequency among Buryats (117/217 = 53.9%, 40/80 = 50.0%, 86/298 = 28.9% (mostly northern and western) ) and other indigenous peoples of Buryatia (15/28 = 53.6% Sojots, 27/51 = 52.9% Hamnigans ).