Business cluster

clusterclustersclusteringindustrial clusterregional clusterscluster effecteconomic cluster businessan abundance locallybusiness
A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field.wikipedia
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Cluster development

economic clusterseconomic cluster
Cluster development has since become a focus for many government programs.
Cluster development (or cluster initiative or economic clustering) is the economic development of business clusters.

Economies of agglomeration

agglomerationagglomeration benefitsagglomeration economies
The underlying concept, which economists have referred to as agglomeration economies, dates back to 1890, and the work of Alfred Marshall.
As more firms in related fields of business cluster together, their costs of production may decline significantly (firms have competing multiple suppliers; greater specialization and division of labor result).

Paris-Saclay

campus
High-tech clusters – These clusters are high technology-oriented, well adapted to the knowledge economy, and typically have as a core renowned universities and research centers like Silicon Valley, the East London Tech City or Paris-Saclay. An exceptional example of a prominent high-tech cluster that does not include a university is the High Tech Campus Eindhoven, located in the Dutch city of Eindhoven.
Paris-Saclay is a research-intensive and business cluster currently under construction south of Paris, France.

Hubs and nodes

An alternative to clusters, reflecting the distributed nature of business operations in the wake of globalization, is hubs and nodes.
The model of hubs and nodes builds on Porter's cluster model which served well in the past, but as businesses and regions around the world have adjusted to the realities of globalization, the concept of clusters is becoming outdated.

Alfred Marshall

MarshallMarshallianAlfred Marshall,
The underlying concept, which economists have referred to as agglomeration economies, dates back to 1890, and the work of Alfred Marshall.
Marshall's brief references to the social and cultural relations in the "industrial districts" of England were used as a starting point for late twentieth-century work in economic geography and institutional economics on clustering and learning organisations.

Knowledge economy

knowledge-based economyknowledge-basedknowledge
High-tech clusters – These clusters are high technology-oriented, well adapted to the knowledge economy, and typically have as a core renowned universities and research centers like Silicon Valley, the East London Tech City or Paris-Saclay. An exceptional example of a prominent high-tech cluster that does not include a university is the High Tech Campus Eindhoven, located in the Dutch city of Eindhoven.
or, on the contrary, reinforced in some other economic fields, by the creation of business clusters around centers of knowledge, such as universities and research centers. However, clusters already existed in pre-knowledge economy times.

Michael Porter

Michael E. PorterProfessor Michael PorterPorter
The term business cluster, also known as an industry cluster, competitive cluster, or Porterian cluster, was introduced and popularized by Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990).
Techno cluster

Bangalore

BengaluruBangalore, India Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Knowledge services clusters – Like low-cost manufacturing clusters, these clusters have emerged typically in developing countries. They have been characterized by the availability of lower-cost skills and expertise serving a growing global demand for increasingly commoditized (i.e. standardized, less firm-specific) knowledge services, e.g. software development, engineering support, analytical services. Examples include Bangalore, India; Recife, Brazil; Shanghai, China. Multinational corporations have played an important role in "customizing" business conditions in these clusters. One example for this is the establishment of collaborative linkages with local universities to secure the supply of qualified, yet lower-cost engineers.
Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters – Software Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City.

Cap Digital

In France, the national industrial policy includes support for a specific form of business clusters, called " Pôles de Compétitivité", such as Cap Digital.
Cap Digital is a business cluster, started in 2006, a French public agency dedicated to the development of the Innovative Economy in the Île-de-France region, and in France.

Megasite

Mega-Site
A Megasite or Mega-Site is a land development by private developers, universities, or governments to promote business clusters.

Industrial district

industrial cityindustrial townindustrial zone
Industrial district
A growing literature with an accompanying cloud of definitions of what is meant as an industrial district characterised the international dabate, e.g. Cluster.

Innovation

pioneerinnovativeinnovator
Now, competitive advantage—how companies make productive use of inputs, requiring continual innovation—is more important.
For instance, experts are advocating that the U.S. federal government launch a National Infrastructure Foundation, a nimble, collaborative strategic intervention organization that will house innovations programs from fragmented silos under one entity, inform federal officials on innovation performance metrics, strengthen industry-university partnerships, and support innovation economic development initiatives, especially to strengthen regional clusters.

Entrepreneurship ecosystem

high technology ecosystemhigh technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem
Entrepreneurial ecosystem
Business cluster – A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field.

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field.

Competition (companies)

competitivenesscompetitivecompetition
Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete, nationally and globally.

Urban studies

urbanisturbanUrban theorist
In urban studies, the term agglomeration is used.

Urban area

Urbanurban agglomerationagglomeration
In urban studies, the term agglomeration is used.

Strategic management

business strategycorporate strategystrategy
Clusters are also important aspects of strategic management.

Paul Krugman

KrugmanKrugman, P.
The importance of economic geography, or more correctly geographical economics, was also brought to attention by Paul Krugman in Geography and Trade (1991).

World economy

global economyworld marketglobal economics
According to Porter, in the modern global economy, comparative advantage—how certain locations have special endowments (i.e., harbor, cheap labor) to overcome heavy input costs—is less relevant.

Comparative advantage

economic advantageComparative Advantage Studiescomparative advantages
According to Porter, in the modern global economy, comparative advantage—how certain locations have special endowments (i.e., harbor, cheap labor) to overcome heavy input costs—is less relevant.

Competitive advantage

sustainable competitive advantagecompetitive strategyunfair advantage
Now, competitive advantage—how companies make productive use of inputs, requiring continual innovation—is more important.

Central Germany

The goal was to "encourage coordination among political and administrative officials" of Mitteldeutschland.)