Brass buttons from the uniform of a Danish World War I artillery lieutenant
Modern buttons made from vegetable ivory
Spanish button from ca. 1650-1675 (about 12 mm).
Button stamping machine, Henri Jamorski Button Factory, Paris, France, 1919
Three plastic sew-through buttons (left) and one shank, fabric-covered button (right)
Shirt studs
Plastic studs for bedclothes
Peter Carl Fabergé buttons in the Cleveland Museum of Art

Fastener that joins two pieces of fabric together by slipping through a loop or by sliding through a buttonhole.

- Button

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Hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together.

Typical fasteners (US quarter shown for scale)
Structural bolt DIN 6914 with DIN 6916 washer and UNI 5587 nut



Machine-stitched keyhole buttonhole with bar
A machine-made buttonhole.
A bound buttonhole. The inset fabric panels are called welts.

Buttonholes are reinforced holes in fabric that buttons pass through, allowing one piece of fabric to be secured to another.


Organic–inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it is also the material of which pearls are composed.

The iridescent nacre inside a nautilus shell
Nacreous shell worked into a decorative object
Schematic of the microscopic structure of nacre layers
Electron microscopy image of a fractured surface of nacre
Fossil nautiloid shell with original iridescent nacre in fossiliferous asphaltic limestone, Oklahoma. Dated to the late Middle Pennsylvanian, which makes it by far the oldest deposit in the world with aragonitic nacreous shelly fossils.
Nacre bracelet
Altarpiece, {{circa|1520}}, with extensive use of carved nacre
Nacre gunpowder flask, {{circa|1750}}, mostly made of Turbo marmoratus shell
Inlay with nacre tesserae, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul
Engraved nacre pendant, Solomon Islands 1838

Mother of pearl buttons are used in clothing either for functional or decorative purposes.


Hard, protective outer layer usually created by an animal that lives in the sea.

Seashells washed up on the beach in Valencia, Spain; nearly all are single valves of bivalve mollusks, mostly of Mactra corallina
Hand-picked molluscan seashells (bivalves and gastropods) from the beach at Clacton on Sea in England
A group of seashells
Mixed shells on a beach in Venezuela
These are some different shells that vary in size, form and pattern combination.
Seashells hand-picked from beach drift in North Wales at Shell Island near Harlech Castle, Wales, bivalves and gastropods, March/April 1985
Shells on the seashore
Single valves of the bivalve Senilia senilis, plus two gastropods, washed up on the beach at Fadiouth, Senegal
Numerous Turritella gastropod shells washed up on a beach at Playa Grande, Costa Rica
Loose valves or plates from Chiton tuberculatus from the beachdrift on the southeast coast of Nevis, West Indies
Cuttlebone from a Sepia sp.
Shells of 3 species of Nautilus
An ocellated (spotted) octopus using a clamshell as a shelter
Marine hermit crab Diogenes pugilator, using a shell of the dog whelk Nassarius reticulatus
A group of purchased (mostly marine) shells includes the shell of a large tropical land snail (upper right), and a shiny freshwater apple snail shell (center)
1742 drawing of shells of the money cowry, Monetaria moneta
A sacred chank shell on the flag of Travancore, India
Spatha shell. From Naqada tomb 1539, Egypt. Naqada I period. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Hindu priest sounding a ritual trumpet made from Turbinella pyrum
Korean military procession with Charonia trumpets
Use of gastropod shells, specifically cowries, in traditional dress of the Kikuyu people of Kenya, Africa
A Pearly King and Queen in London
Enormous seashell sculpture at Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram, India
Large sculpture of a scallop on the beach at Aldeburgh, by Maggi Hambling, 2003
Aphrodite, 1st century BC, 13 cm, 5 in
Illustration from an 18th-century book, edited by Albertus Seba. These decorative arrangements were a popular way to display seashells at the time
Portrait of the Shell Collector Jan Govertsen van der Aer, by Hendrick Goltzius (1603)
The moulted carapace of a lady crab found on the beach at Long Beach, Long Island, New York State
Shell of horseshoe crab on a beach
Sea urchin test
A whole animal of the brachiopod Lingula anatina from Australia with the shell showing on the left
Dish with beachworn coral pieces, marine gastropod shells, and echinoderm tests, from the Caribbean and the Mediterranean
An x-ray photograph of a gorgonian
Marine diatoms form hard silicate shells

Shells historically have been and still are made into, or incorporated into, necklaces, pendants, beads, earrings, buttons, brooches, rings, hair combs, belt buckles and other uses.


Pendant that opens to reveal a space used for storing a photograph or other small item such as a lock of hair.

A late 17th-century locket, depicting the head of King Charles I (reigned 1625–1649)

Very rare World War I- and World War II-era British and American military uniform locket buttons exist, containing miniature working compasses.

Horn (anatomy)

Permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals that consists of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone.

A pair of horns on a male impala
Anatomy and physiology of an animal's horn
Goat skull piece
African buffalo (both sexes have horns)
Water buffalo horn used as a hammer with cleaver to cut fish in southeast China
Erkencho, musical instrument made from a horn
A Hebridean sheep with one horn on one side and two on the other
Water buffalo horn (Bubalus bubalis)
Elizabeth Bonté Art Nouveau horn necklace
Sable antelope mounted horns, at the Zoological Museum, Denmark
Horns, tusks and antlers in the National Museum of Scotland

Horn buttons may be made from horns, and historically also hooves which are a similar material. The non-bony part of the horn or hoof may be softened by heating to a temperature just above the boiling point of water, then molded in metal dies, or the hollow lower part of the horn may be slit spirally lengthwise and then flattened in a vise between wood boards, again after heating, and later cut with a holesaw or similar tool into round or other shaped blanks which are finished on a lathe or by hand. Toggle buttons are made by cutting off the solid tips of horns and perforating them. Antler buttons, and buttons made from hooves are not technically horn buttons, but are often referred to as such in popular parlance. Horns from cattle, water buffalo, and sheep are all used for commercial button making, and of other species as well, on a local and non-commercial basis.


Cloth garment for the upper body .

Charvet shirt from the 1930s, Norsk Folkemuseum, Oslo, Norway
Three types of shirt
Shirt production line
Factory sewing
Shirts on a conveyor
Shirts awaiting finishing
Kids shirts for quality checking
Manufacturer and buyer reviewing product
Dress shirt

no buttons – a closed placket cuff


Set of clothes comprising a suit jacket and trousers of identical textiles worn with a collared dress shirt, necktie, and dress shoes.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and U.S. President Barack Obama wearing Western-style business suits.
Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, and Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, in business suits. Note that Modi is wearing a Jodhpuri with Mandarin collar, commonplace in India, while Putin's jacket features notch lapels, more common in the Western world.
U.S. Ambassador to the U.N Samantha Power and Israeli President Reuven Rivlin wearing business wear suits as per their sex, 2016
A man dressed in a three-piece suit and bowler hat.
Single- vs. double-breasted jacket
Comparison of two notched lapel cuts: English (left) and Spanish (right). The former is the most commonly seen notched lapel
A traditional waistcoat, to be worn with a two-piece suit or separate jacket and trousers.
Angélica Rivera wearing a modern-day skirt suit

Suit jackets in all styles typically have three or four buttons on each cuff, which are often purely decorative (the sleeve is usually sewn closed and cannot be unbuttoned to open).


Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body.

Clothing in history, showing (from top) Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Romans; Byzantines, Franks; and thirteenth through fifteenth century Europeans
A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region
Hindu lady wearing sari, one of the most ancient and popular pieces of clothing in the Indian subcontinent, painting by Raja Ravi Varma
A young woman wearing t-shirt and shorts at the warm summer in Åland
A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, scarf, and sweater
Jacket by Guy Laroche, from a woman's suit with a black skirt and blouse (1960)
University students in casual clothes in the U.S.
A woman wearing sports bra and boyshorts, conventionally women's sportswear, but now worn as casuals or athleisure by women in the West
Fashion shows often are the source of the latest trends in clothing fashions, photograph of a model in a modern gown reflecting the current fashion trend at an Haute couture fashion show
Garments factory in Bangladesh
Safety garb for women was designed to prevent occupational accidents among war workers, Los Angeles display (c. 1943)
Laundromat in Walden, New York, United States
Clothing salvage centre at the General Engineering Company (Canada) munitions factory during the Second World War
A Hindu North Indian wedding, the groom wearing a sherwani and pagri turban and the bride wearing a sari
Japanese PM Shinzō Abe and Ivanka Trump (right) wearing Western-style gender-differentiated business suits (2017)
Italian actors Gabriel Garko in a suit and Laura Torrisi in a gown, considered Red carpet fashion by designer dress code (2009)
A group of women and men gathered at sport event in Sweden (1938)
3rd Duke of Fife wearing a traditional Scottish kilt (1984)
Achkan sherwani and churidar (lower body) worn by Arvind Singh Mewar and his kin during a Hindu wedding in Rajasthan, India, are items traditionally worn by the elites of the Indian subcontinent
A Barong Tagalog made for a wedding ceremony
Alim Khan's bemedaled robe conveys a social message about his wealth, status, and power
The Buddha wearing kāṣāya robes, originating from ancient India, these robes were worn by fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns
Clerical clothing worn by Catholic priests

If not cleaned and refurbished, clothing becomes worn and loses its aesthetics and functionality (as when buttons fall off, seams come undone, fabrics thin or tear, and zippers fail).

Snap fastener

The two halves of a riveted leather snap fastener. The top half has a groove which "snaps" in place when "pressed" into the bottom half
Press-studs for dresses (1968)
Iconic cowboy singer and actor Roy Rogers wearing Western shirt with faux pearl snaps
Four pieces of a typical rivet snap fastener: from upper left, the "eyelet" "socket", "cap", and "stud"
The socket and cap, the "female" parts of a riveted snap fastener
The eyelet and stud, the "male" parts of a riveted snap fastener
Tools used to apply a snap

A snap fastener (also called press stud, dome fastener, popper, snap or tich) is a pair of interlocking discs, made out of a metal or plastic, commonly used in place of traditional buttons to fasten clothing and for similar purposes.