By-election

special electionparliamentary by-electionby-electionsSpecialbyelectionspecial electionsby electionbye-electionbye electionbypoll
A by-election, also spelled bye-election (Ireland only) (known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, and a bypoll in India), is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections.wikipedia
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Recall election

recallrecalledrecall referendum
In most cases these elections occur after the incumbent dies or resigns, but they also occur when the incumbent becomes ineligible to continue in office (because of a recall, ennoblement, criminal conviction, or failure to maintain a minimum attendance).
(Holding a seat in the legislature is not constitutionally necessary to be premier, however.) If enough registered voters sign the petition, the speaker of the legislature announces in parliament that the member has been recalled and the lieutenant governor drops the writ for a by-election as soon as possible, giving voters the opportunity to replace the politician in question.

General election

general electionsGeneralparliamentary elections
A by-election, also spelled bye-election (Ireland only) (known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, and a bypoll in India), is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections.
These are usually held for a nation's primary legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections.

Election Day (United States)

Election DayTuesdaythe same day as federal elections
In the United States, these contests have been called "special elections" because they do not always occur on Election Day like regular congressional elections.
Many state and local government offices are also elected on Election Day as a matter of convenience and cost saving, although a handful of states hold elections for state offices (such as governor) during odd-numbered "off years", or during other even-numbered "midterm years", and may hold special elections for offices that have become vacant.

New Democratic Party

New DemocraticNDPNew Democrat
Pitman's candidacy in a riding in which the CCF was traditionally weak was seen as a test of this concept and his upset victory convinced the CCF and the labour movement to launch the New Democratic Party (NDP).
In 1960, before the NDP was founded, one candidate, Walter Pitman, won a by-election under the New Party banner.

Walter Pitman

Similarly, the upset 1960 by-election victory of Walter Pitman in Peterborough as a "New Party" candidate was a significant boost for the movement to replace the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with an unnamed "New Party" which would be integrated with the labour movement.
His victory in a federal by-election held in Peterborough, Ontario in 1960 as a candidate for the New Party was a significant catalyst in the movement to refound the social democratic Cooperative Commonwealth Federation as the "New Democratic Party" (NDP).

By-elections to the 30th Canadian Parliament

15 by-elections were held on a single date
In Canada, in 1978, 15 by-elections were held on a single date, restoring the House of Commons to 264 members.
The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the entirety of the 30th Canadian Parliament, though their number did decrease from by-elections.

Deborah Grey

Deb GreyGrey
Deborah Grey's 1989 by-election victory in Beaver River was seen as evidence that the newly formed Reform Party of Canada would be a serious political contender and that it posed a serious political threat for the ruling Progressive Conservatives.
Grey won a by-election in March 1989, almost tripling her vote total from the 1988 election to become Reform's first MP.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
At the federal level, the U.S. Constitution requires that vacancies in the House of Representatives be filled with a special election (unlike the Senate, where it is up to law of the state involved to determine how the vacancy is filled ).
It also allows state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held.

York South

Toronto-York South
In 1942, the Conservatives' Arthur Meighen (who had already served as Prime Minister during the 1920s) sought to re-enter the House of Commons of Canada through a by-election in York South.
The riding is notable for the 1942 federal by-election in which newly elected Conservative leader Arthur Meighen was defeated in his attempt to win a seat in the House of Commons by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation's (CCF) candidate (assisted by the Liberals).

Gilles Duceppe

Gilles Duceppe's 1990 upset landslide by-election victory in Laurier—Sainte-Marie with 66% of the vote on behalf of the newly formed Bloc Québécois was the first electoral test for what was initially a loose parliamentary formation created two months earlier after several Quebec MPs defected from the Progressive Conservative and Liberal parties to protest the failure of the Meech Lake Accord and provided the first indication that the party could be a serious force in the province of Quebec.
In 1990, Duceppe was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a by-election for the eastern Montreal riding of Laurier—Sainte-Marie.

Bloc Québécois

Bloc QuebecoisBQBloc
Gilles Duceppe's 1990 upset landslide by-election victory in Laurier—Sainte-Marie with 66% of the vote on behalf of the newly formed Bloc Québécois was the first electoral test for what was initially a loose parliamentary formation created two months earlier after several Quebec MPs defected from the Progressive Conservative and Liberal parties to protest the failure of the Meech Lake Accord and provided the first indication that the party could be a serious force in the province of Quebec.
The first Bloquiste candidate to be elected was Gilles Duceppe, then a union organizer, in a by-election for the Montreal riding of Laurier—Sainte-Marie on 13 August 1990.

Arthur Meighen

MeighenActing Minister of Justice Arthur MeighenArthur Meighan
In 1942, the Conservatives' Arthur Meighen (who had already served as Prime Minister during the 1920s) sought to re-enter the House of Commons of Canada through a by-election in York South.
He suffered a heavy defeat in the 1921 election to Mackenzie King and the Liberal Party, but re-entered Parliament through a 1922 by-election and remained as Opposition Leader.

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Mackenzie KingKingW.L. Mackenzie King
As a result, with confidence in his government undermined, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King called the 1945 federal election several weeks later; originally he had intended to postpone the election until the war was clearly won.
He was first elected to Parliament as a Liberal in a 1908 by-election, and then in 1909 was appointed as the first-ever Minister of Labour.

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation

Cooperative Commonwealth FederationCCFCo-operative Commonwealth
Similarly, the upset 1960 by-election victory of Walter Pitman in Peterborough as a "New Party" candidate was a significant boost for the movement to replace the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with an unnamed "New Party" which would be integrated with the labour movement.
The party won a critical York South by-election on 8 February 1942, and in the process prevented the Conservative leader, former Prime Minister Arthur Meighen, from entering the House of Commons.

List of Dáil by-elections

by-electionsubsequent by-electionby-elections
In Ireland by-elections, a by-election held in Dublin South-West during 2014 provided a very surprising upset.
By-elections in Ireland occur to fill vacant seats which can be caused by the death, resignation or expulsion of a sitting Teachta Dála (member of parliament).

2014 Dublin South-West by-election

Dublin South-West by-electionDublin South-West2014 by-election
In Ireland by-elections, a by-election held in Dublin South-West during 2014 provided a very surprising upset.
A by-election was held in the Dáil Éireann Dublin South-West constituency in Ireland on Friday, 10 October 2014, following the election of Fine Gael Teachta Dála (TD) Brian Hayes to the European Parliament.

Motion of no confidence

vote of no confidencevote of confidenceconfidence vote
In parliamentary systems, party discipline is often so strong that the governing party can only lose a vote of no confidence after losing enough by-elections for it to become a minority government.
The cases in which a motion of no confidence has passed are generally those in which the government party's slim majority has been eliminated by either by-elections or defections, such as the 1979 vote of no confidence in the Callaghan ministry in the UK which was carried by one vote, forcing a general election which was won by Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Party.

1965 Leyton by-election

Leyton by-election1965 (by-election)1965 by-election
In 1965 the British Foreign Secretary Patrick Gordon Walker stood in the Leyton by-election for election to the UK Parliament, having been defeated in controversial circumstances in Smethwick at the previous year's general election.
The Leyton by-election, 1965 was a parliamentary by-election held on 21 January 1965 for the British House of Commons constituency of Leyton in east London.

House of Commons of Canada

House of CommonsMPMember of Parliament
In 1942, the Conservatives' Arthur Meighen (who had already served as Prime Minister during the 1920s) sought to re-enter the House of Commons of Canada through a by-election in York South.
In each case, a vacancy may be filled by a by-election in the appropriate electoral district.

List of Australian federal by-elections

by-electionsby-electionAustralia's first federal by-election
Casual vacancies are filled by by-elections.

Conscription Crisis of 1944

conscriptionConscription Crisis1942 plebiscite
In Canada, General Andrew McNaughton was appointed to Cabinet as Minister of Defence on November 1, 1944, without having a seat in parliament, after his predecessor resigned during the Conscription Crisis of 1944.
Arthur Meighen was defeated in the February 9, 1942 by-election to the CCF's Noseworthy.

List of South Australian House of Assembly by-elections

List of South Australian state by-electionsby-elections
This is a list of by-elections and scheduled by-elections for the South Australian House of Assembly.

List of Western Australian state by-elections

ministerial by-electionsby-electionmembers of the Western Australian Parliament have died in office
The list of Western Australia state by-elections includes every by-election held in the Australian state of Western Australia.

List of Alberta by-elections

1937 Alberta Provincial By-Election
The list of Alberta by-elections includes every by-election held in the Canadian province of Alberta.

List of British Columbia by-elections

The list of British Columbia by-elections includes every by-election held in the Canadian province of British Columbia.