Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591

Byzantine–Sassanid WarByzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591ongoing warRoman–Persian War of 572–591warwar of 572–591war with PersiaByzantine-Sassanid WarByzantine–Sasanian Warmilitary campaign
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591 was a war fought between the Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Eastern Roman Empire, termed by modern historians as the Byzantine Empire.wikipedia
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Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine–Sasanian War
It preceded a much more wide-ranging and dramatic final conflict in the early 7th century.
The previous war between the two powers had ended in 591 after Emperor Maurice helped the Sasanian king Khosrow II regain his throne.

Khosrow I

Khosrau IChosroes IChosroes
Taking advantage of Byzantine confusion, Sassanid forces under Khosrow I (r.
Khosrow I's reign is furthermore marked by initial internal conflicts and campaigns against the Sasanians' neighboring archrivals, the Hephthalites in the east, the Aksumites in the south, and the Byzantine Empire in the west—in particular the Lazic War and the war of 572–591.

Siege of Dara (573)

Siege of Darabesieged and capturedcapture
531–579) swiftly counter-attacked and encircled Dara, capturing the city after a four-month siege.
The Siege of Dara occurred in 573, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591.

Adarmahan

Adaarman
At the same time, a smaller Persian army under Adarmahan ravaged Syria, sacking Apamea and a number of other cities.
Adarmahān (in Greek sources given as Ἀδααρμάνης, Adaarmanes; fl. late 6th century) was a Persian general active in the western frontier of the Sassanid Empire against the East Roman (Byzantine) forces, during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591.

Maurice (emperor)

MauriceEmperor MauriceMaurikios
After Persian raids in Mesopotamia, the new magister militum of the East Maurice mounted raids on both sides of the Tigris, captured the fortress of Aphumon and sacked Singara.
After he became Emperor, he brought the war with Sasanian Persia to a victorious conclusion.

Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith

al-Mundhir IIIal-MundhirMundhir III
565-578) had ordered the assassination of the Ghassanid king al-Mundhir III; as a result of the unsuccessful attempt on his life, al-Mundhir severed his alliance with the Byzantines, leaving their desert frontier exposed.
But the letter fell into Mundhir's hands, who then severed his relations with the Empire and refused to commit his forces during the war with Persia that began in 572.

Tamkhosrow

TamkhosrauTamkhusro
Khosrow now sued for peace, but a victory in Armenia by his general Tamkhosrau over his recent nemesis Justinian stiffened his resolve and the war continued.
A one-year truce had been negotiated in 574, interrupting the ongoing war (since 572) between Persia and the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire, while negotiations were taking place to conclude an even longer truce.

John Mystacon

574–582). The advantage gained at Constantina was lost later in the year when his successor as magister militum of the East, John Mystacon, was defeated on the river Nymphios by Kardarigan.
John, surnamed Mystacon, "the mustachioed", (Ἰωάννης ὀ Μυστάκων, fl. 580–590), was a prominent East Roman (Byzantine) general in the wars with Sassanid Persia during the reigns of Byzantine emperors Tiberius II (r.

Battle of Solachon

Solachon586 invasion of Byzantine EmpireSolachon, Battle of
During the mid-580s, the war continued inconclusively through raids and counter-raids, punctuated by abortive peace talks; the one significant clash was a Byzantine victory at the Battle of Solachon in 586.
The engagement was part of the long and inconclusive Byzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591.

Priscus (general)

Priscus
In 588, a mutiny by unpaid Byzantine troops against their new commander, Priscus, seemed to offer the Sassanids a chance for a breakthrough, but the mutineers themselves repulsed the ensuing Persian offensive; after a subsequent defeat at Tsalkajur, the Byzantines won another victory at Martyropolis.
Priscus first appears in the historical sources when he was appointed, in late 587 or early 588, to command in the East against the Persians as magister militum per Orientem, replacing Philippicus.

Bahram Chobin

Bahrām ChobinBahrām ChōbinBahram VI
Meanwhile, in the Caucasus, Byzantine and Iberian offensives were repulsed by the Persian general Bahram Chobin, who had recently been transferred from the Central Asian front where he had brought a war with the Gokturks to a successful conclusion.
Son of general Bahram Gushnasp and hailing from the noble House of Mihran, Bahram began his career as the governor of Ray, and was promoted to the army chief (spahbed) of the northwestern portions of the empire after capturing the Byzantine stronghold of Dara, fighting in the war of 572–591.

Kardarigan (6th century)

Kardariganwho was active during the 580s
574–582). The advantage gained at Constantina was lost later in the year when his successor as magister militum of the East, John Mystacon, was defeated on the river Nymphios by Kardarigan.
Kardarigan was a Sassanid Persian general of the late 6th century, who fought in the Byzantine–Persian War of 572–591.

Tiberius II Constantine

Tiberius IITiberiusTiberius Constantine
The fall of Dara, the main Byzantine stronghold in Mesopotamia, reportedly drove Justin II to insanity, and control of the Byzantine Empire passed to his wife Sophia and Tiberius Constantine.
In 574, Justin had a mental breakdown, forcing Empress Sophia to turn to Tiberius to manage the empire, which was fighting the Persians to the east and dealing with the internal crisis of the plague.

Erzurum

ErzerumTheodosiopolisKarin
240–270). His attempts to attack Theodosiopolis and Caesarea were thwarted, but he managed to sack Sebasteia before withdrawing.
After the long Byzantine-Sasanian War of 572-591, Byzantine rule was extended to all western parts of Armenia, and emperor Maurice (582-602) decided to strengthen political control over the region by supporting pro-Chalcedonian fraction of the Armenian Church.

Justin II

Emperor Justin IIJustinFlavius Justinus
To make matters worse, in 572 the Byzantine emperor Justin II (r.
In 572 his refusal to pay tribute to the Persians in combination with overtures to the Turks led to a war with the Sassanid Empire.

Justinian (general)

JustinianJustinianus
On the way home, he was intercepted and severely defeated near Melitene by Justinian, the magister militum of the East; pillaging the undefended city of Melitene as they fled, his army suffered further heavy losses as they crossed the Euphrates under Byzantine attack.
From this post, he supported the outbreak of the Iberian and Armenian rebellion against the Sassanids, which led to the outbreak of a twenty-year-long conflict between Byzantium and Persia.

Siege of Nisibis (573)

besiegedSiege of Nisibislaid siege
After a victory at Sargathon in 573, they laid siege to Nisibis and were apparently on the point of capturing this, the chief bulwark of the Persian frontier defences, when the abrupt dismissal of their general Marcian led to a disorderly retreat.

Fifty-Year Peace Treaty

Fifty Years Peace" of DaraFifty Years' PeaceFifty-Year Peace
Less than a decade after the Fifty-Year Peace Treaty of 562, tensions mounted at all points of intersection between the two empires' spheres of influence, as had happened before when war broke out in the 520s.
The peace treaty was to last for 50 years, but it remained in effect only until 572, when the two empires went into another war.

Hormizd IV

Hormizd
Khosrow again sought peace in 579, but died before an agreement could be reached and his successor Hormizd IV (r.
From his father, Hormizd had inherited an ongoing war against the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

Maurice's Balkan campaigns

Balkan CampaigncampaignsBalkan Campaigns
Emperor Maurice was even in a position to overcome his predecessor's omissions in the Balkans by extensive campaigns.
To make matters worse, Justin II started the Roman-Persian War of 572–591, which tied down forces in the east while they were needed in the Balkans.

Philippicus (general)

PhilippicusPhilippikos
At about the same time, he was appointed comes excubitorum (Commander of the Excubitors, the imperial bodyguard), and in 584, he replaced John Mystacon as magister militum for the East, thus becoming responsible for the conduct of the ongoing war against the Sassanid Persians.

Cours (Byzantine general)

Cours
He first appears in 574, after the outbreak of a new war with Sassanid Persia in 572, when he was placed, along with general Theodorus, in command of the Byzantine army of Armenia.

Battle of Martyropolis (588)

Battle of Martyropolisbattle of Martyrpolismajor victory
In 588, a mutiny by unpaid Byzantine troops against their new commander, Priscus, seemed to offer the Sassanids a chance for a breakthrough, but the mutineers themselves repulsed the ensuing Persian offensive; after a subsequent defeat at Tsalkajur, the Byzantines won another victory at Martyropolis.

Battle of Blarathon

BlarathonBlarathon, Battle ofvictorious conclusion
At the Battle of Blarathon near Ganzak they decisively defeated Bahram, restoring Khosrow II to power and bringing the war to an end.

Marcian (cousin of Justin II)

MarcianMarcianus
After a victory at Sargathon in 573, they laid siege to Nisibis and were apparently on the point of capturing this, the chief bulwark of the Persian frontier defences, when the abrupt dismissal of their general Marcian led to a disorderly retreat.
He was involved in the Roman–Persian War of 572–591: