Byzantine Empire

ByzantineByzantinesEastern Roman EmpireByzantiumEastern RomanByzantine periodByzantine EmperorByzantine eraEastern EmpireEastern
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Fatih, İstanbul, and formerly Byzantium).wikipedia
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Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanIstanbulcapital
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Fatih, İstanbul, and formerly Byzantium).
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Fatih, İstanbul, and formerly Byzantium).
The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors (with the exception of the sole rule of Constantine between 324 and 337, and Theodosius between 392 and 395).

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire.
The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Theodosius I

TheodosiusTheodosius the GreatTheodosian
Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was a Roman Emperor from 379 to 395, and the last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Roman Empire.

Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusFlavius HeracliusHeraclius I
Finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus, Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

Byzantine–Sasanian WarByzantine–Persian WarByzantine–Sassanid War
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century wherein it lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs.
The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.

Battle of Manzikert

Manzikertbattle of MalazgirtMalazgirt
During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).

Komnenian restoration

KomnenianKomnenian periodrecover during the 12th century
The empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, and by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.
The Komnenian restoration is the term used by historians to describe the military, financial, and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian dynasty, from the accession of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081 to the death of Andronikos I Komnenos in 1185.

Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως; undefined) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

Byzantine–Ottoman wars

Byzantine-Ottoman WarsByzantine–Turkish warsprogressively annexed by the Ottomans
Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 14th and 15th century.
The Byzantine–Ottoman wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

Macedonian Renaissance

Byzantine Renaissancerenaissancerenaissance in culture and art
During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
Macedonian Renaissance is a label sometimes used to describe the period of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire (867–1056), especially the 10th century, which some scholars have seen as a time of increased interest in classical scholarship and the assimilation of classical motifs into Christian artwork.

Fourth Crusade

CrusadersCrusaderFourth
However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.
However, a sequence of economic and political events culminated in the Crusader army sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire.

Byzantine Greeks

Byzantine GreekByzantinesGreek
While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its increasingly predominant Greek element.
They were the main inhabitants of the lands of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), of Constantinople and Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the Greek islands, Cyprus, and portions of the southern Balkans, and formed large minorities, or pluralities, in the coastal urban centres of the Levant and northern Egypt.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiaAnatolian
During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were largely replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods.

Modern Greek

GreekModernmodern Greek language
The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic."
The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.

Frankokratia

FrankishLatinFrankish rule
However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.
The Frankokratia (Φραγκοκρατία, sometimes anglicized as Francocracy, lit. "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Λατινοκρατία, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia (Βενετοκρατία or Ενετοκρατία, "rule of the Venetians"), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae).

Roman army

armyRomanRomans
The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) was the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, and legalised Christianity.
In terms of prosperity and cultural life, the Byzantine Empire was one of the peaks in Christian history and Christian civilization, and Constantinople remained the leading city of the Christian world in size, wealth and culture.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian Reformsreforms
An early instance of the partition of the Empire into East and West occurred in 293, when Emperor Diocletian created a new administrative system (the tetrarchy), to guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.
Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, and Maximian reigned in the Western Empire.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
His successor, Marcian, refused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the West.
The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two separate imperial courts as an administrative expediency.

Rûm

RumRūmRoman
In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm.
It refers to the Byzantine Empire, which was then simply known as the "Roman Empire" and had not yet acquired the designation "Byzantine", an academic term applied only after its dissolution.

Attila

Attila the HunEtzelAtli
To fend off the Huns, Theodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila.
During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires.

Tribute

tributarytributestributary system
In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West – due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
To be called "tribute" a recognition by the payer of political submission to the payee is normally required; the large sums, essentially protection money, paid by the later Roman and Byzantine Empires to barbarian peoples to prevent them attacking imperial territory, would not usually be termed "tribute" as the Empire accepted no inferior political position.

Belisarius

Flavius BelisariusBelisarius invades AfricaGeneral Belisarius
The western conquests began in 533, as Justinian sent his general Belisarius to reclaim the former province of Africa from the Vandals, who had been in control since 429 with their capital at Carthage.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 500 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.

Theoderic the Great

TheodoricTheodericTheodoric the Great
Zeno negotiated with the invading Ostrogoths, who had settled in Moesia, convincing the Gothic king Theodoric to depart for Italy as magister militum per Italiam ("commander in chief for Italy") with the aim of deposing Odoacer.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃, ', Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος, ', Þēodrīc, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.