Province of Aegyptus in AD 125
The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (its vassals in pink)
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
A 1st-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes with a uraeus, as pharaoh (Louvre)
Constantine the Great was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and moved the seat of the empire to Byzantium, renamed Constantinople in his honour.
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
The first generations of the imperial Severan dynasty depicted on the "Severan Tondo" from Egypt (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (its vassals in pink)
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
Statue of an orator, wearing a himation, from Heracleopolis Magna, in Middle Egypt (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)
Restored section of the Walls of Constantinople
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Bronze statue of a nude youth, from Athribis in Lower Egypt (British Museum, London)
The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (its vassals in pink)
The Roman Empire by 476
A 2nd-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes, as pharaoh (, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg)
After the death of Theodosius I in 395, the empire was again divided. The west disintegrated in the late 400s while the east ended with the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
Encaustic and tempera painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 160, with a green sagum, gold fibula, white tunic, and red leather balteus (British Museum)
Empress Theodora and attendants (Mosaic from Basilica of San Vitale, 6th century)
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
Encaustic painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 130, with a blue sagum, silver fibula, white tunic, and red balteus, with related grave goods (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Hagia Sophia built in 537, during the reign of Justinian. The minarets were added in the 15th–16th centuries by the Ottoman Empire.
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
Encaustic mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 100, with a blue sagum, fibula, white tunic with purple angusticlavus, and red balteus (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The Byzantine Empire in c. 600 during the reign of Maurice. Half of the Italian peninsula and most of southern Hispania were lost, but the eastern borders expanded, gaining land from the Persians.
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
1st-century AD mummy excavated by William Flinders Petrie
Battle between Heraclius and the Persians. Fresco by Piero della Francesca, c. 1452
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC–50 AD, Brooklyn Museum
By 650 (pictured) the empire had lost all its southern provinces, except the Exarchate of Africa, to the Rashidun Caliphate. At the same time the Slavs invaded and settled in the Balkans.
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
Roman trade with India started from Aegyptus according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century).
Greek fire was first used by the Byzantine Navy during the Byzantine–Arab Wars (from the Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Kushan ruler Huvishka with seated Roman-Egyptian god Serapis (ϹΑΡΑΠΟ, "Sarapo") wearing the modius.
Constantine IV and his retinue, mosaic in Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe. Constantine IV defeated the First Arab siege of Constantinople.
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
Roman emperor Trajan making offerings to Egyptian Gods, on the Roman Mammisi at the Dendera Temple complex, Egypt.
The Byzantine Empire at the accession of Leo III, c. 717. Striped indicates areas raided by the Umayyads.
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
North apse of the Red Monastery of Sohag
Gold solidus of Leo III (left), and his son and heir, Constantine V (right)
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Possible personification of the province of Egypt from the Temple of Hadrian in Rome (National Roman Museum)
A Simple Cross: An example of Iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul.
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Nilus, the river god of Egypt's Nile, with cornucopia, wheatsheaf, sphinx, and crocodile (Braccio Nuovo). Sculpture from Rome's Temple of Isis and Serapis.
The Byzantine Empire, c. 867
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Enthroned statue of the syncretic god Serapis with Cerberus, from Pozzuoli (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
The general Leo Phokas defeats the Hamdanid Emirate of Aleppo at Andrassos in 960, from the Madrid Skylitzes
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
4th-century relief of the god Horus as a Roman cavalryman killing the crocodile, Setekh (Louvre)
10th century military successes were coupled with a major cultural revival, the so-called Macedonian Renaissance. Miniature from the Paris Psalter, an example of Hellenistic-influenced art.
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
2nd-century relief of Anubis as a Roman infantryman in the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Emperor Basil II ((r. 976 – 1025))
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Copper-alloy statuettes of Egyptian gods Anubis (left) and Horus (centre) as Roman officers with contrapposto stances (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
The extent of the Empire under Basil II
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
5th-century Christian relief (Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst)
Rus' under the walls of Constantinople (860)
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
A possible 2nd-century papyrus fragment of the Gospel of Peter, from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P. Oxy. LX 4009, Sackler Library)
Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the Skylitzis Chronicle
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
Coptic cross and chi-rho carved into older reliefs at the Temple of Isis at Philae
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe throughout late antiquity and most of the Middle Ages until the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Roman-era Christian-themed wool-and-linen Egyptian textile (Louvre)
Mural of Saints Cyril and Methodius, 19th century, Troyan Monastery, Bulgaria
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Trilingual stela of G. Cornelius Gallus from Philae (Egyptian Museum)
The seizure of Edessa (1031) by the Byzantines under George Maniakes and the counterattack by the Seljuk Turks
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
Granite statue of Caracalla wearing nemes and uraeus cobra headdress (Alexandria National Museum)
Alexios I, founder of the Komnenos dynasty
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
"Pompey's Pillar", a monument erected by Diocletian ((r. 284 – 305)) in the Serapeum of Alexandria, represented in a mosaic from Sepphoris in Roman Palestine
The Chora Church, dating from the Komnenian period, has some of the finest Byzantine frescoes and mosaics.
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
4th-century pendant with portrait of Alexander the Great as Zeus-Ammon with repoussé border (Walters Art Museum)
The Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm before the First Crusade (1095–1099)
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Folio 6 verso from the Golenischev papyrus of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, showing Theophilus of Alexandria standing triumphantly on top of the Serapeum with its bust of Serapis
A mosaic from the Hagia Sophia of Constantinople (modern Istanbul), depicting Mary and Jesus, flanked by John II Komnenos (left) and his wife Irene of Hungary (right), 12th century
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
The Carmagnola, an Egyptian porphyry head on Venice's St Mark's Basilica thought to represent Justinian I
Byzantine Empire in orange, c. 1180, at the end of the Komnenian period
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
A map of the Near East in 565, showing Byzantine Egypt and its neighbors.
The Lamentation of Christ (1164), a fresco from the church of Saint Panteleimon in Nerezi, North Macedonia, considered a superb example of 12th-century Komnenian art
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
Augustan-era krater in Egyptian alabaster, found in a Roman necropolis at San Prisco in 1897 (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
Byzantium in the late Angeloi period
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
The Byzantine Empire in 629 after Heraclius had reconquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Sassanid Empire.
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix (1840)
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
The Mediterranean world in 650, after the Arabs had conquered Egypt and Syria from the Byzantines.
The partition of the empire following the Fourth Crusade, c. 1204
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
The Byzantine Empire, c. 1263
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
1st-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Cleveland Museum of Art)
The siege of Constantinople in 1453, depicted in a 15th-century French miniature
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
1st/2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
The Eastern Mediterranean just before the Fall of Constantinople
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
2nd century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Flag of the late Empire under the Palaiologoi, sporting the tetragrammic cross symbol of the Palaiologos dynasty
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
The embassy of John the Grammarian in 829, between the emperor Theophilos and the Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Italian sketch of Emperor John VIII during his visit in Ferrara and Florence in 1438
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Interior of the Hagia Sophia, the patriarchal basilica in Constantinople designed 537 by Isidore of Miletus, the first compiler of Archimedes' various works. The influence of Archimedes' principles of solid geometry is evident.
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
The frontispiece of the Vienna Dioscurides, which shows a set of seven famous physicians
A victor in his four-horse chariot
Mummy portrait (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Bas-relief plaque of Tribonian in the Chamber of the House of Representatives in the United States Capitol
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Many refugee Byzantine scholars fled to North Italy in the 1400s. Here John Argyropoulos (1415–1487), born in Constantinople and who ended his days in north Italy.
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
2nd-century mummy portrait from Faiyum (Galerie Cybèle, Paris)
Ceramic grenades that were filled with Greek fire, surrounded by caltrops, 10th–12th century, National Historical Museum, Athens, Greece
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Antikensammlung Berlin)
As a symbol and expression of the universal prestige of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, Justinian built the Church of the Holy Wisdom of God, Hagia Sophia, which was completed in the short period of four and a half years (532–537).
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Brooklyn Museum)
Mosaic of Jesus in Pammakaristos Church, Istanbul
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
2nd-century mummy portrait (Getty Villa)
Triumphal arch mosaics of Jesus Christ and the Apostles. In Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy.
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
2nd-century mummy portrait (Pushkin Museum)
Earliest known depiction of a bowed lyra, from a Byzantine ivory casket (900–1100) (Museo Nazionale, Florence)
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
2nd-century mummy portrait (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art)
The double-headed eagle, a common Imperial symbol
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
2nd–4th-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Distribution of Greek dialects in Anatolia in the late Byzantine Empire through to 1923. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian in green. (Green dots indicate Cappadocian Greek-speaking villages in 1910. )
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
2nd/3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
A game of τάβλι (tabula) played by Byzantine emperor Zeno in 480 and recorded by Agathias in c. 530 because of a very unlucky dice throw for Zeno (red), as he threw 2, 5 and 6 and was forced to leave eight pieces alone.
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
2nd-century mummy portrait (Harvard Art Museums)
Golden Solidus of Justinian I (527–565) excavated in India probably in the south, an example of Indo-Roman trade during the period
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
2nd-century mummy portrait probably from er-Rubayat (Getty Villa)
Christ Pantocrator mosaic in Hagia Sophia, circa 1261
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Mummy Mask of a Man, early 1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum
Christ as the Good Shepherd; {{circa}} 425-430; mosaic; width: {{circa}} 3 m; Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (Ravenna, Italy)<ref>{{cite book |last1=Fortenberry|first1=Diane|title=THE ART MUSEUM |date=2017|publisher=Phaidon|isbn=978-0-7148-7502-6|page=108|language=en}}</ref>
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
Canopic jar from the 3rd or 4th century (National Archaeological Museum, Florence)
Diptych Leaf with a Byzantine Empress; 6th century; ivory with traces of gilding and leaf; height: {{cvt|26.5|cm}}; Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria)<ref>{{cite book |last1=Fortenberry|first1=Diane|title=THE ART MUSEUM |date=2017|publisher=Phaidon|isbn=978-0-7148-7502-6|page=114|language=en}}</ref>
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Funerary masks uncovered in Faiyum, 1st century.
Collier; late 6th–7th century; gold, an emerald, a sapphire, amethysts and pearls; diameter: {{cvt|23|cm}}; from a Constantinopolitan workshop; Antikensammlung Berlin (Berlin, Germany)<ref>{{cite book |last1=Fortenberry|first1=Diane|title=THE ART MUSEUM |date=2017|publisher=Phaidon|isbn=978-0-7148-7502-6|page=115|language=en}}</ref>
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
2nd-century statuette of Horus as Roman general (Louvre)
Page of the Gospel Book with Commentaries: Portrait of Mark; 1000–1100; ink, tempera, gold, vellum and leather binding; sheet: {{cvt|28 x 23|cm}}; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, US)
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
1st–4th-century statuette of Horus as a Roman soldier (Louvre)
Icon of the New Testament Trinity; c. 1450; tempera and gold on wood panel (poplar); Cleveland Museum of Art
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite from Lower Egypt (Louvre)
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
1st–4th-century statuette of Isis lactans (Louvre)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Isis lactans: the mother goddess suckles Harpocrates (Pio-Clementino Museum)
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
1st/2nd-century Parian marble statue of Anubis (Gregorian Egyptian Museum)
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
2nd/3rd-century mosaic of Anubis from Ariminum (Museo della Città, Rimini)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone grave stela (Luxor Museum)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone stela (Luxor Museum)
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone relief (Luxor Museum)
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Hadrian coin celebrating Aegyptus Province, struck c. 135. In the obverse, Egypt is personified as a reclining woman holding the sistrum of Hathor. Her left elbow rests on a basket of grain, while an ibis stands on the column at her feet.
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
Zenobia coin reporting her title as queen of Egypt (Augusta), and showing her diademed and draped bust on a crescent. The obverse shows a standing figure of Ivno Regina (Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet and a brilliant star on the left.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

The Byzantine Empire,{{NoteTag|{{IPAc-en|b|I|"|z|{|n|%|t|aI|n|,_|b|aI|"|z|{|n|-|,_|"|b|I|z|@|n|-|,_|-|%|t|i:|n|,_|-|%|t|I|n}} {{respell|bih|ZAN|tyne|,_|by|-|,_|BIZ|ən|-|,_|-|teen|,_|-|tin}} }} also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire remained the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. The terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" were coined after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, and to themselves as Romans{{NoteTag|{{Lang-gkm|Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων|Basileía Rhōmaíōn}} (Roman Empire); {{Lang-gkm|Ῥωμανία|Rhōmaía}} (Romania); {{Lang-gkm|Ῥωμαῖοι|Rhōmaîoi}} (Romans)}}—a term which Greeks continued to use for themselves into Ottoman times.

- Byzantine Empire

Egypt (Aegyptus ; Aígyptos ) was a subdivision of the Roman Empire from Rome's annexation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 30 BC to its loss by the Byzantine Empire to the Islamic conquests in AD 641.

- Roman Egypt

Later, the Empire was ruled by multiple emperors who shared control over the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.

- Roman Empire

The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources, and during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, it lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Rashidun Caliphate.

- Byzantine Empire

Civil wars and proscriptions continued, eventually culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year, Octavian conquered the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power then became unassailable, and in 27 BC, the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title of Augustus, effectively making him the first Roman emperor.

- Roman Empire

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Barberini ivory, a late Leonid/Justinian Byzantine ivory leaf from an imperial diptych, from an imperial workshop in Constantinople in the first half of the sixth century (Louvre Museum)

Late antiquity

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Time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, generally spanning the 4th–6th century in Europe and adjacent areas bordering the Mediterranean Basin.

Time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, generally spanning the 4th–6th century in Europe and adjacent areas bordering the Mediterranean Basin.

The Barberini ivory, a late Leonid/Justinian Byzantine ivory leaf from an imperial diptych, from an imperial workshop in Constantinople in the first half of the sixth century (Louvre Museum)
Late 4th-century Roman bust of a Germanic slave in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in Belgica Prima, seat of the praetorian prefecture of Gaul (Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier)
Modern statue of Constantine I at York, where he was proclaimed Augustus in 306
The Byzantine Empire after the Arabs conquered the provinces of Syria and Egypt – the same time the early Slavs settled in the Balkans
The Favourites of the Emperor Honorius, 1883: John William Waterhouse expresses the sense of moral decadence that coloured the 19th-century historical view of the 5th century.
The ruins of the Taq Kasra in Ctesiphon, capital of the Sasanian Empire, photographed in 1864
View west along the Harbour Street towards the Library of Celsus in Ephesus, present-day Turkey. The pillars on the left side of the street were part of the colonnaded walkway apparent in cities of Late Antique Asia Minor.
Roman cavalry from a mosaic of the Villa Romana del Casale, Sicily, 4th century CE
The Four Tetrarchs, in porphyry, later sacked from Constantinople, St. Marks, Venice
The Vienna Dioscurides, an early 6th-century illuminated manuscript of De Materia Medica by Dioscorides in Greek, a rare example of a late antique scientific text

Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (235–284) to the early Muslim conquests (622–750), or as roughly contemporary with the Sasanian Empire (224–651).

The Roman Empire underwent considerable social, cultural and organizational changes starting with the reign of Diocletian, who began the custom of splitting the Empire into Eastern and Western portions ruled by multiple emperors simultaneously.

The birth of Christian monasticism in the deserts of Egypt in the 3rd century, which initially operated outside the episcopal authority of the Church, would become so successful that by the 8th century it penetrated the Church and became the primary Christian practice.

The divided Empire in 271

Crisis of the Third Century

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The divided Empire in 271
Gothic raids in the 3rd century
Barbarian invasions against the Roman Empire in the 3rd century
Emperor Diocletian. With his rise to power in 284, the Crisis of the Third Century ended and gave rise to the Tetrarchy

The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed.

By 268, the empire had split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire (including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and, briefly, Hispania); the Palmyrene Empire (including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus); and, between them, the Italian-centered Roman Empire proper.

This would have a considerable impact on the later development of the empire with a richer, more stable eastern empire surviving the end of Roman rule in the west.

Solidus depicting Theodosius, with the legend:

("Our Lord Theodosius, pious, fortunate, august")

Theodosius I

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Roman emperor from 379 to 395.

Roman emperor from 379 to 395.

Solidus depicting Theodosius, with the legend:

("Our Lord Theodosius, pious, fortunate, august")
Theodosius was commander of the army in Moesia I in 374. His dismissal may have been connected to the accession of the emperor Valentinian II, which took place at Aquincum (Budapest) in nearby Pannonia Valeria, in 375.
The administrative divisions of the Roman Empire in 395, under Theodosius I.
Solidus of Valentinian II showing Valentinian II and Theodosius I on the reverse, each holding a mappa
Head found near statue base dedicated to Theodosius, in the ancient city of Aphrodisias (Aydın, Turkey)
Roman provinces along the Ister (Danube), showing the Roman dioceses of Thrace, Dacia, Pannonia and Italia Annonaria on the empire's northern frontier
Solidus of Theodosius, showing both him and his co-emperor Valentinian II ((r. 375 – 392)) enthroned on the reverse, each crowned by Victory and together holding an orb ("the Victory of the Augusti")
Massacre in the Hippodrome of Thessaloniki in 390, 16th-century wood engraving
Anthonis Van Dyke's 1619 painting of St. Ambrose blocking the cathedral door, refusing Theodosius' admittance, a "pious fiction" invented by Theodoret.
Missorium of Theodosius, found in 1847 in Almendralejo, Spain
View of the Hippodrome of Constantinople with the surviving Obelisk of Theodosius
The Obelisk of Theodosius, details of the base of the Obelisk of Thutmose III, Hippodrome, Istanbul (8370192180)
Theodosius offers a laurel wreath to the victor, on the marble base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III at the Hippodrome of Constantinople.

Theodosius was the last emperor to rule the entire Roman Empire before its administration was permanently split between two separate courts (one western, the other eastern).

Some of these foreign recruits were exchanged with more reliable Roman garrison troops stationed in Egypt.

Monogramme of Christ (the Chi Rho) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th-century AD, marble, Musei Vaticani, on display in a temporary exhibition at the Colosseum in Rome, Italy

State church of the Roman Empire

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Monogramme of Christ (the Chi Rho) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th-century AD, marble, Musei Vaticani, on display in a temporary exhibition at the Colosseum in Rome, Italy
Icon depicting Constantine and the bishops of the Council of Nicaea (325). The centrally placed and haloed Emperor holds the Creed of the First Council of Constantinople (381).
Missorium of Emperor Theodosius I, who declared Nicene Christianity to be the State religion of the Roman Empire. This piece was found in Almendralejo.
Changes in extent of the Empire ruled from Constantinople. 476 End of the Western Empire; 550 Conquests of Justinian I; 717 Accession of Leo the Isaurian; 867 Accession of Basil I; 1025 Death of Basil II; 1095 Eve of the First Crusade; 1170 Under Manuel I; 1270 Under Michael VIII Palaiologos; 1400 Before the fall of Constantinople
The Hagia Sophia basilica in Constantinople, for centuries the largest church building in the world.
Odoacer's kingdom in 480, after annexing Dalmatia and most of Sicily.
A map of the five patriarchates in the Eastern Mediterranean as constituted by Justinian I. Rome is coloured in pink, Constantinople in green, Antioch in blue, Jerusalem in pink and Alexandria in yellow. Leo III extended the jurisdiction of Constantinople to the territories bordered in pink.
A map of Muslim expansion in the 7th and 8th centuries.
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The spread of Christianity in Europe by 1000.
The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor.

The state church of the Roman Empire refers to the church approved by the Roman emperors after Theodosius I issued the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, which recognized the catholic orthodoxy of Nicene Christians in the Great Church as the Roman Empire's state religion.

The Byzantine Empire soon lost most of these gains, but it held Rome, as part of the Exarchate of Ravenna, until 751, a period known in church history as the Byzantine Papacy.

By the late 8th century the Umayyad caliphate had conquered all of Persia and much of the Byzantine territory including Egypt, Palestine, and Syria.