Byzantium

ByzantineByzantine EmpireByzantinesByzantionNotable people from ByzantiumByzantiansByzantine historyByzantine periodByzantium EraByzantium paternal writing
For the city in the late Roman and the Eastern Roman or Byzantine periods (330–1453), see Constantinople.wikipedia
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Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanIstanbulcapital
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and then Istanbul. (See Nova Roma.) After his death the city was called Constantinople (Greek Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoupolis, "city of Constantine").
It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330.

Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and then Istanbul.
Istanbul (, or or ; İstanbul ), known between c. 660 BCE and 330 CE as Byzantium, and between 330 and 1930 CE as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and Europe (including the Asian side within the city borders).

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and then Istanbul.
Roman Greece is usually considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineByzantinesEastern Roman Empire
Much later, the name Byzantium became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Fatih, İstanbul, and formerly Byzantium).

History of Istanbul

ConstantinopleIstanbularchaeological sites
The name Lygos for the city, which likely corresponds to an earlier Thracian settlement, is mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History.
It was colonised by the Greeks in the 7th century BC. It fell to the Roman Empire in AD 196, and was known as Byzantium until 330, when it was renamed Constantinople and made the new capital of the Roman Empire.

Megara

MegarianMegariansMegarid
Byzantium was colonized by the Greeks from Megara in 657 BC.
Megara then fought a war of independence with Corinth, and afterwards founded Chalcedon in 685 BC, as well as Byzantium (c. 667 BC).

Byzas

legendary king of that name
It may be derived from the Thracian or Illyrian personal name Byzas.
In Greek mythology, Byzas (Ancient Greek: Βύζας, Býzas) was the eponymous founder of Byzantium (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion), the city later known as Constantinople and then Istanbul.

Chalcedon

bishop of ChalcedonTitular Bishop of ChalcedonWestern Anatolia
Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn, a great natural harbor, meets the Bosporus and flows into the Sea of Marmara, opposite Chalcedon (modern day Kadıköy).
It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar) and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy. The name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, and other works.

Golden Horn

HaliçAlibeyköy CreekGHO
Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn, a great natural harbor, meets the Bosporus and flows into the Sea of Marmara, opposite Chalcedon (modern day Kadıköy).
As a natural estuary that joins Bosphorus Strait at the point where the strait meets the Sea of Marmara, the waters of the Golden Horn help define the northern boundary of the peninsula constituting "Old Istanbul" (ancient Byzantium and Constantinople), the tip of which is the promontory of Sarayburnu, or Seraglio Point.

Kadıköy

ChalcedonErenköyKadıköy, Istanbul
Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn, a great natural harbor, meets the Bosporus and flows into the Sea of Marmara, opposite Chalcedon (modern day Kadıköy).
Chalcedon was the first settlement which the Greeks from Megara established on the Bosphorus, in 685 BC, a few years before they established Byzantium on the other side of the strait in 667 BC. Chalcedon became known as the 'city of the blind', the story being that Byzantium was founded following a prophecy that a great capital would be built 'opposite the city of the blind' (meaning that the people of Chalcedon must have been blind not to see the obvious value of the peninsula on the Golden Horn as a natural defensive harbour).

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
He adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages the land on the European side of the Bosporus had over the Asiatic side.
A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with Byzantium and Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the British Isles, France, Christianised western Germany, the Alpine regions and northern and central Italy.

Bosporus

Bosphorus StraitBosphorusBosphorus Straits
Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn, a great natural harbor, meets the Bosporus and flows into the Sea of Marmara, opposite Chalcedon (modern day Kadıköy). He adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages the land on the European side of the Bosporus had over the Asiatic side.
The Greek city-state of Athens in the 5th century BC, which was dependent on grain imports from Scythia, maintained critical alliances with cities which controlled the straits, such as the Megarian colony Byzantium.

Constantine the Great

ConstantineConstantine IEmperor Constantine
The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as an imperial residence inspired by Rome itself.
He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title).

Star and crescent

crescent and starcrescentcrescent moon
By the late Hellenistic or early Roman period (1st century BC), the star and crescent motif was associated to some degree with Byzantium; even though it became more widely used as the royal emblem of Mithradates VI Eupator (who for a time incorporated the city into his empire).
It develops in the iconography of the Hellenistic period (4th–1st centuries BCE) in the Kingdom of Pontus, the Bosporan Kingdom and notably the city of Byzantium by the 2nd century BCE.

Turkey

🇹🇷TurkishTUR
To this day it remains the largest and most populous city in Turkey, although Ankara is now the national capital.
Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (now İzmir) and Byzantium (now Istanbul), the latter founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I.

Sestos

SestusAkbaşAkbaş (Sestos)
Though Achaemenid control of the city was never as stable as compared to other cities in Thrace, it was considered, alongside Sestos, to be one of the foremost Achaemenid ports on the European coast of the Bosporus and the Hellespont.
During the Persian rule, Sestos alongside Byzantium were the two Achaemenid ports of utmost importance on the European coasts of the Bosphorus and the Hellespont.

Pescennius Niger

Gaius Pescennius Nigeremperor Pescennius NigerPescennius
After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity.
Meanwhile, Niger was busy securing the support of all of the governors in the Asiatic provinces, including the esteemed proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, who had occupied Byzantium in the name of Niger.

Marmara Ereğlisi

HeracleaPerinthosPerinthus
It was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus.
As capital of the Roman province of Europa, it was the metropolitan see for all the bishoprics of the province, including Byzantium, which in 330 became Constantinople.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenicHellenism
By the late Hellenistic or early Roman period (1st century BC), the star and crescent motif was associated to some degree with Byzantium; even though it became more widely used as the royal emblem of Mithradates VI Eupator (who for a time incorporated the city into his empire).
280 BC), the Boeotian league, the "Northern League" (Byzantium, Chalcedon, Heraclea Pontica and Tium) and the "Nesiotic League" of the Cyclades.

New Rome

Nova RomaThird Romenew capital
(See Nova Roma.) After his death the city was called Constantinople (Greek Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoupolis, "city of Constantine").
The city was known as Byzantium prior to his rededication, and as Constantinople thereafter, until the 20th century, when it was renamed Istanbul.

Septimius Severus

SeverusLucius Septimius SeverusSeptimus Severus
After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity.
While campaigning against Byzantium, he ordered that the tomb of his fellow Carthaginian Hannibal be covered with fine marble.

Homerus of Byzantium

HomerusHomerus the Younger
Homerus, tragedian, lived in the early 3rd century BC
Homerus of Byzantium (Greek: Ὅμηρος ὁ Βυζάντιος) was an ancient Greek grammarian and tragic poet.

Aristophanes of Byzantium

AristophanesAristophanes the grammarian
Aristophanes of Byzantium, a scholar who flourished in Alexandria, 3rd–2nd century BC
Aristophanes of Byzantium (c.

Philo of Byzantium

Philo
Philo, engineer, lived ca. 280 BC–ca. 220 BC
Philo of Byzantium (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος, Philōn ho Byzantios, ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC), also known as Philo Mechanicus, was a Greek engineer, physicist and writer on mechanics, who lived during the latter half of the 3rd century BC. Although he was from Byzantium he lived most of his life in Alexandria, Egypt.

Hecate

ancient Greek goddess of witchcraftCrataeis-HecateGoddess
To commemorate the event the Byzantines erected a statue of Hecate lampadephoros (light-bearer or bringer).
Hecate was greatly worshipped in Byzantium.