CD-R

CDRrecordable CDCD-Rsrecordable CDsacetateCDRsCDs2xCD-R2xCDrblank
CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a digital optical disc storage format.wikipedia
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Compact disc

CDCDsCD single
A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and read arbitrarily many times.
Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, PictureCD, Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-i), and Enhanced Music CD.

Optical disc

optical mediaoptical data storageoptical discs
CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a digital optical disc storage format.
An optical disc is designed to support one of three recording types: read-only (e.g.: CD and CD-ROM), recordable (write-once, e.g. CD-R), or re-recordable (rewritable, e.g. CD-RW).

Write once read many

WORMwrite-oncewrite-once-read-many
A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and read arbitrarily many times. Originally named CD Write-Once (WO), the CD-R specification was first published in 1988 by Philips and Sony in the 'Orange Book'.
WORM drives preceded the invention of the CD-R and DVD-R.

Philips

Philips ElectronicsRoyal Philips ElectronicsPhilips Media
Originally named CD Write-Once (WO), the CD-R specification was first published in 1988 by Philips and Sony in the 'Orange Book'.
In 1982, Philips teamed with Sony to launch the Compact Disc; this format evolved into the CD-R, CD-RW, DVD and later Blu-ray, which Philips launched with Sony in 1997 and 2006 respectively.

Taiyo Yuden

TaiyoTaiyo Yuden Co., Ltd.
The dye materials developed by Taiyo Yuden made it possible for CD-R discs to be compatible with Audio CD and CD-ROM discs.
Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd. is a Japanese materials and electronics company, situated in Kyobashi, Chuo, Tokyo, that helped pioneer recordable CD technology (CD-R) along with Sony and Philips in 1988.

CD-ROM

CDCD-ROM driveCD-ROM XA
Written CD-Rs and CD-RWs are, in the aspect of low-level encoding and data format, fully compatible with the audio CD (Red Book CD-DA) and data CD (Yellow Book CD-ROM) standards. (Note that the Yellow Book standard for CD-ROM only specifies a high-level data format and refers to the Red Book for all physical format and low-level code details, such as track pitch, linear bit density, and bitstream encoding.) This means they use Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, CIRC error correction, and, for CD-ROM, the third error correction layer defined in the Yellow Book.
ISO 13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions.

CD-RW

rewritable CDsCD-MOCDRW
This is an advantage over CD-RW, which can be re-written but cannot be played on many plain CD readers.
Early CD-R media contained a similar compatibility flaw.

Optical disc recording technologies

optical disc recording technologyoverburnOverburning
(As the ATIP is part of the Orange Book standard, it is natural that its design does not support some nonstandard disc configurations.) Therefore, in order to use the additional capacity, these discs have to be burned using "overburn" options in the CD recording software.
The most common form of recordable optical media is write-once organic dye technology, popularized in the form of the CD-R and still used for higher-capacity media such as DVD-R.

Copy protection

anti-piracycopy-protectedcopy protected
The pregroove is not destroyed when the data are written to the CD-R, a point which some copy protection schemes use to distinguish copies from an original CD.
Floppy disks were later displaced by CDs as the preferred method of distribution, with companies like Macrovision and Sony providing copy protection schemes that worked by writing data to places on the CD-ROM where a CD-R drive cannot normally write.

Cyanine

Cy5Cy3cyanine dye
Cyanines are also used in CD-R and DVD-R media.

Dye

dyesdyestuffsynthetic dyes
As well as degradation of the dye, failure of a CD-R can be due to the reflective surface.
Other than pigmentation, they have a range of applications including organic dye lasers, optical media (CD-R) and caera sensors (color filter array).

Azo dye

azo dyesdiazo dyeazo pigments
Most DVD-R/+R and some CD-R discs use blue azo dye as the recording layer.

Optical disc drive

optical driveCD driveDVD drive
An optical disk recorder encodes (also known as burning) data onto a recordable CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R, or BD-R disc (called a blank) by selectively heating parts of an organic dye layer with a laser.

Absolute Time in Pregroove

ATIP
A blank CD-R is not "empty"; the pregroove has a wobble (the ATIP), which helps the writing laser to stay on track and to write the data to the disc at a constant rate.
Absolute Time in Pregroove (ATIP) is a method of storing information on an optical medium, used on CD-R and other writable discs.

DVD recordable

DVD-RDVD-RWDVD+R
Like CD-Rs, DVD recordable uses dye to store the data.

LightScribe

LightScribe Direct Disc Labeling
It uses specially coated recordable CD and DVD media to produce laser-etched labels with text or graphics, as opposed to stick-on labels and printable discs.

MultiLevel Recording

Multi-levelmulti-level recording
Through a combination of proprietary media, recorder, reader and player modifications, Calimetrics proposed that ML could increase the capacity of a CD-ROM, CD-R or CD-RW to 2 GB, a single-layer DVD, DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-RW, DVD+RW or DVD-RAM to 7.1 to 10 GB and a single-layer Blu-ray Disc (BD) to as much as 60 GB.

Packet writing

packet writing formatspacket-writing
Deleting files and directories of a CD-R using packet writing technology does not recover the space occupied by these objects but, rather, they are simply marked as being deleted (making them effectively hidden).

Rainbow Books

Red BookOrange BookRainbow book
CD-R/RWs are available with capacities of 80 minutes of audio or 737,280,000 bytes (700 MiB), which they achieve by molding the disc at the tightest allowable tolerances specified in the Orange Book CD-R/CD-RW standards.

Digital media

digital editingdigitalonline media
CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

Data storage

data storage devicestoragestorage media
CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a digital optical disc storage format.

Sony

Sony CorporationSony ElectronicsSony Corp.
Originally named CD Write-Once (WO), the CD-R specification was first published in 1988 by Philips and Sony in the 'Orange Book'.

Compact Disc Digital Audio

Audio CDCDCD-DA
Written CD-Rs and CD-RWs are, in the aspect of low-level encoding and data format, fully compatible with the audio CD (Red Book CD-DA) and data CD (Yellow Book CD-ROM) standards.

Eight-to-fourteen modulation

EFMEFMPlusEFM code
(Note that the Yellow Book standard for CD-ROM only specifies a high-level data format and refers to the Red Book for all physical format and low-level code details, such as track pitch, linear bit density, and bitstream encoding.) This means they use Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, CIRC error correction, and, for CD-ROM, the third error correction layer defined in the Yellow Book.

Cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding

CIRCcross-interleavedCross R-S code
(Note that the Yellow Book standard for CD-ROM only specifies a high-level data format and refers to the Red Book for all physical format and low-level code details, such as track pitch, linear bit density, and bitstream encoding.) This means they use Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, CIRC error correction, and, for CD-ROM, the third error correction layer defined in the Yellow Book.