CD-ROM

CDCD-ROM drives18x1x CDs4x CD-ROMaudio CDCD ROMCD ROMsCD-R-ROMCD-ROM based
A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data.wikipedia
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Compact disc

CDCDsCD single
A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data.
The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings (CD-DA) but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM).

ISO 9660

ISOCDFS.cdfs
Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660 format PC CD-ROMs). ISO 9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM.
ISO 9660 is a file system for optical disc media.

Fourth generation of video game consoles

16-bit16-bit eraFourth generation
During the 1990s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software and data for computers and fourth generation video game consoles.
CD-ROM support via add-ons, allowing larger storage space and full motion video playback

Enhanced CD

enhancedVideoCD+
Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660 format PC CD-ROMs).
Enhanced CD is a certification mark of the Recording Industry Association of America for various technologies that combine audio and computer data for use in both Compact Disc and CD-ROM players.

Bootable business card

business card-sized media
The most common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter, though the smaller Mini CD standard with an 80 mm diameter, as well as shaped compact discs in numerous non-standard sizes and molds (e.g., business card-sized media), are also available.
A bootable business card (BBC) is a CD-ROM that has been cut, pressed, or molded to the size and shape of a business card (designed to fit in a wallet or pocket).

Computer data storage

main memorystoragememory
A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data.
Read only storage : Retains the information stored at the time of manufacture, and write once storage (write once read many) allows the information to be written only once at some point after manufacture. These are called immutable storage. Immutable storage is used for tertiary and off-line storage. Examples include CD-ROM and CD-R.

Compact Disc Digital Audio

Audio CDCDRed Book
It was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, and adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a storage capacity of 553 MiB.
These parameters are common to all compact discs and used by all logical formats, such as CD-ROM.

Rainbow Books

Orange BookRed BookRainbow book
One of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats, the Yellow Book, standardized by Sony and Philips in 1983, specifies a format for discs with a maximum capacity of 650 MiB.
CD-ROM (Read-Only Memory) – standardized as ECMA-130 and ISO/IEC 10149

CD-R

CDRrecordable CDrecordable CDs
ISO 13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions.
Written CD-Rs and CD-RWs are, in the aspect of low-level encoding and data format, fully compatible with the audio CD (Red Book CD-DA) and data CD (Yellow Book CD-ROM) standards.

CD player

CD playersCDcompact disc player
Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660 format PC CD-ROMs).
In June 1985, the computer-readable CD-ROM (read-only memory) and, in 1990, CD-Recordable were introduced, also developed by both Sony and Philips.

Read-only memory

ROMROMsread-only
Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.e. it is a type of read-only memory.
* Optical storage media, such CD-ROM which is read-only (analogous to masked ROM).

El Torito (CD-ROM standard)

El Toritoboot imagebootable CD
The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, and is called El Torito.
The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification.

Ecma International

ECMAEuropean Computer Manufacturer's AssociationEuropean Computer Manufacturers Association
The Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, standardized in 1989 as the ISO/IEC 10149 / ECMA-130 standard.
ECMA-119 – CD-ROM volume and filestructure (later known as ISO 9660)

Video CD

VCDVCDsvideo disk
Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, further define formats based on the CD-ROM specifications. Video CDs, Super Video CDs, Photo CDs, Enhanced Music CDs and CD-i use these sector modes.
Video CDs comply with the CD-i Bridge format, and are authored using tracks in CD-ROM XA mode.

Denon

Denon CD DJ players (DJ SC2900)
The CD-ROM format was developed by Japanese company Denon in 1982.
1984 Unveiled the CD-ROM format.

ISO 13490

ISO/IEC 13490
ISO 13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions.
ISO/IEC 13490 (also known as ECMA-168) is the successor to ISO 9660 (level 3), intended to describe the file system of a CD-ROM or CD-R.

Mixed Mode CD

data trackenhanced portion of the discmixed mode CDs
They can also coexist with audio CD tracks as well, which is the case of mixed mode CDs.
Typically the first track is a data track while the rest are audio tracks.

Floppy disk

floppy disk drivefloppy drivediskette
The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, and is called El Torito.
Then, distribution of larger packages was gradually replaced by CD-ROMs, DVDs and online distribution.

White Book (CD standard)

White Book
Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, further define formats based on the CD-ROM specifications.
The White Book also defines the more general CD-i Bridge format (also called CD-Bridge or simply "bridge discs"), which are CD-ROM XA discs with an additional Green Book CD-i specific application program.

Philips CD-i

CD-iCD Interactive (CD-I)CD-i console
It was intended as a bridge between CD-ROM and CD-i (Green Book) and was published by Sony and Philips in 1991. Video CDs, Super Video CDs, Photo CDs, Enhanced Music CDs and CD-i use these sector modes.
It was created to provide more functionality than an audio CD player or game console, but at a lower price than a personal computer with a CD-ROM drive.

International Organization for Standardization

ISOInternational Organization for Standardization (ISO)ISO standard
The Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, standardized in 1989 as the ISO/IEC 10149 / ECMA-130 standard.
Many CD images end in the file extension "ISO" to signify that they are using the ISO 9660 standard file system as opposed to another file system—hence CD images are commonly referred to as "ISOs". Virtually all computers with CD-ROM drives that can read CDs use this standard. Some DVD-ROMs also use ISO 9660 file systems.

Disk sector

sectorsectors sectors
The playing time of a standard CD is 74 minutes, or 4,440 seconds, contained in 333,000 blocks or sectors.
Each sector stores a fixed amount of user-accessible data, traditionally 512 bytes for hard disk drives (HDDs) and 2048 bytes for CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs.

Photo CD

PCDKodak Photo CDKodak Photo-CD
Video CDs, Super Video CDs, Photo CDs, Enhanced Music CDs and CD-i use these sector modes.
Photo CDs are defined in the Beige Book and conform to the CD-ROM XA and CD-i Bridge specifications as well.

Super Video CD

SVCDChina Video DiscChina Video Disc (CVD)
Video CDs, Super Video CDs, Photo CDs, Enhanced Music CDs and CD-i use these sector modes.
Similar to VCDs, SVCDs comply with the CD-i Bridge format, and are authored (or "burned") using the CD-ROM XA format.

File system

filesystemfile systemsfilesystems
ISO 9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM.
For example, to access the files on a CD-ROM, one must tell the operating system "Take the file system from this CD-ROM and make it appear under such-and-such directory".