Caesar (title)

CaesarKayser-i RûmCaesarsCaesareskaisardeputy Roman EmperorkesarćesarCaesarissaco-emperor
Caesar (English pl. Caesars; Latin pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character.wikipedia
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Roman emperor

EmperoremperorsEmperor of the Roman Empire
The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".
Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar.

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius
It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator.
His cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor"; the title "Caesar" was used throughout the Roman Empire, giving rise to modern cognates such as Kaiser or Tsar.

Emperor

empressemperorsimperial
Caesar (English pl. Caesars; Latin pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Caesar (as, for example, in Suetonius' Twelve Caesars). This tradition continued in many languages: in German it became "Kaiser"; in certain Slavic languages it became "Tsar"; in Hungarian it became "Császár", and several more variants. The name derived from Julius Caesar's cognomen "Caesar": this cognomen was adopted by all Roman emperors, exclusively by the ruling monarch after the Julio-Claudian dynasty had died out. In this tradition Julius Caesar is sometimes described as the first Caesar/emperor (following Suetonius). This is one of the most enduring titles, Caesar and its transliterations appeared in every year from the time of Caesar Augustus to Tsar Symeon II of Bulgaria's removal from the throne in 1946.

Gallienus

Publius Licinius Egnatius GallienusEmperor GallienusGalienus
Many of the soldier emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century attempted to strengthen their legitimacy by naming heirs, including Maximinus Thrax, Philip the Arab, Decius, Trebonianus Gallus and Gallienus.
Valerian became Emperor on 22 October 253 and had the Roman senate elevate Gallienus to the ranks of Caesar and Augustus.

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Julio-ClaudianImperial FamilyJulio-Claudians
The fourth Emperor, Claudius, was the first to assume the name "Caesar" upon accession, without having been adopted by the previous emperor; however, he was at least a member by blood of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, being the maternal great-nephew of Augustus on his mother's side, the nephew of Tiberius, and the uncle of Caligula.
Upon becoming emperor, however, he added the Julian-affiliated cognomen Caesar to his full name.

Tetricus I

TetricusGaius Pius Esuvius TetricusImp. Caesar C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Augustus
The same title would also be used in the Gallic Empire, which operated autonomously from the rest of the Roman Empire from 260 to 274, with the final Gallic emperor Tetricus I appointing his heir Tetricus II Caesar and his consular colleague for 274.
He also faced increasing internal pressure, which led him to declare his son, Tetricus II, caesar in 273 and possibly co-emperor in 274, although this is debated.

Constantine the Great

ConstantineConstantine IEmperor Constantine
The title of Caesar remained in use throughout the Constantinian period, with both Constantine I and his co-emperor and rival Licinius utilising it to mark their heirs.
His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian Reformsreforms
On 1 March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors.
Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively.

Cognomen

cognominacognominalCamillus
It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator.
Some cognomina were hereditary (such as Caesar among a branch of the Julii, Brutus and Silanus among the Junii, or Pilius and Metellus among the Caecilii): others tended to be individual.

Crispus

Flavius Julius CrispusCrispus CaesarFlavius Julius Crispus Caesar
In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign.
Flavius Julius Crispus (died 326), also known as Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus, was a Caesar of the Roman Empire.

Hostilian

Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius C. f. Quintus
Almost all Caesars would be killed before or alongside their fathers, or at best outlive them for a matter of months, as in the case of Hostilian.
Hostilian was born to Decius and Herennia Etruscilla at an unknown date and elevated to Caesar in May 251 by Decius, the same month as his older brother, Herennius Etruscus, was raised to co-emperor.

Constantius Gallus

GallusFlavius Claudius Constantius CaesarFlavius Claudius Constantius Gallus
Constantius II himself would nominate as Caesars his two cousins Constantius Gallus and Julian in succession in the 350s, although he first executed Gallus and then found himself at war with Julian before his own death.
325/326–354), commonly known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Roman Empire (351–354).

Constantius II

ConstantiusEmperor ConstantiusEmperor Constantius II
In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign.
The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, Constantius was made Caesar by his father in 324.

Julian (emperor)

JulianEmperor JulianJulian the Apostate
Constantius II himself would nominate as Caesars his two cousins Constantius Gallus and Julian in succession in the 350s, although he first executed Gallus and then found himself at war with Julian before his own death.
Julian became Caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355, and in this role he campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks.

Nobilissimus

nobelissimosprotonobelissimosnōbelissimos
After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was usually Nobilissimus Caesar "Most Noble Caesar" (abbreviated to NOB CAES, N CAES etc.), though Caesar (CAES) on its own was also used.
The term nobilissimus originated as an epithet to the title of Caesar, whose holder was the Roman and Byzantine emperor's heir-apparent and who would, after Geta in 198, be addressed nobilissimus Caesar.

Tetrarchy

tetrarchtetrarchicTetrarchs
On 1 March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors.
The first phase, sometimes referred to as the diarchy ("rule of two"), involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar (junior emperor) in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286.

Constans

Constans ICostansFlavius Julius Claudius Constans Augustus
In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign.
On 25 December 333, Constantine I elevated Constans to the rank of Caesar at Constantinople.

Title

titlesuntitledpopularly declared title
Caesar (English pl. Caesars; Latin pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Caesar (an honorific family name passed through Roman emperors by adoption)

Constantine II (emperor)

Constantine IIConstantineFlavius Claudius Constantinus Caesar
In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign.
On 1 March 317, he was made Caesar.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineByzantinesEastern Roman Empire
Caesar or Kaisar, was a senior court title in the Byzantine Empire.
He associated himself with a co-emperor (Augustus), and each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesar, to share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner.

Flavian dynasty

FlavianFlavian emperorsFlavians
Nevertheless, Caesar had become such an integral part of the imperial dignity that its place was immediately restored by Titus Flavius Vespasianus ("Vespasian"), whose defeat of Vitellius in 69 put an end to the period of instability and began the Flavian dynasty.
With nothing more to be feared from the enemy, Domitian came forward to meet the invading forces; he was universally saluted by the title of Caesar, and the mass of troops conducted him to his father's house.

Alexios Mosele (Caesar)

Alexios MoseleAlexios MouseleMosele
Hence the title was more frequently awarded to second- and third-born sons, or to close and influential relatives of the Emperor: thus for example Alexios Mosele was the son-in-law of Theophilos (ruled 829–842), Bardas was the uncle and chief minister of Michael III (r. 842–867), while Nikephoros II (r. 963–969) awarded the title to his father, Bardas Phokas.
Alexios Mosele or Musele/Mousele was a Byzantine aristocrat and general, chosen by Emperor Theophilos (r. 829–842) for a time as his heir, betrothed to his daughter Maria and raised to the supreme dignity of Caesar.

Leo II (emperor)

Leo IILeoFlavius Leo iunior Augustus
Thereafter it would receive limited use in the Eastern Roman Empire, for example, in the designation of the future Leo II in the final months of his grandfather's life.
Leo II was made co-emperor with his grandfather Leo I on 18 November 473, and became sole emperor on 18 January 474 after Leo I died of dysentery.

Bardas

Hence the title was more frequently awarded to second- and third-born sons, or to close and influential relatives of the Emperor: thus for example Alexios Mosele was the son-in-law of Theophilos (ruled 829–842), Bardas was the uncle and chief minister of Michael III (r. 842–867), while Nikephoros II (r. 963–969) awarded the title to his father, Bardas Phokas.
842 – 867)). Rising to the rank of Caesar, he was the effective ruler of the Byzantine Empire for ten years, a period which saw military success, renewed diplomatic and missionary activity, and an intellectual revival that heralded the Macedonian Renaissance.

Praetorian prefecture

praetorian prefecturesPrefecturepraetorian prefect
The Tetrarchy was quickly abandoned as a system (though the four quarters of the empire survived as praetorian prefectures) in favour of two equal, territorial emperors, and the previous system of Emperors and Emperors-designate was restored, both in the Latin-speaking West and the Greek-speaking East.
During the Tetrarchy, when the number of holders of the imperial office multiplied (two senior emperors, the Augusti, and two junior colleagues, the Caesares), there is evidence for the existence of only two prefects at each time, presumably assigned to each of the Augusti.