Caesarean section

cesarean sectioncaesarian sectionC-sectioncaesareanCesareanC-sectionsCaesarean sectionscesarean deliverycesarean sectionscaesarean delivery
Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver babies.wikipedia
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Childbirth

laborbirthlabour
Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver babies. Caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is a medically unnecessary caesarean section, where the conduct of a childbirth via a caesarean section is requested by the pregnant patient even though there is not a medical indication to have the surgery.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section.

Breech birth

breechbreech deliverybreech position
This may include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, or problems with the placenta or umbilical cord.
Most babies in the breech position are born by a caesarean section because it is seen as safer than being born vaginally.

Caesarean delivery on maternal request

at Margaret's requestelective caesarean sectionelective Cesarean
Some C-sections are performed without a medical reason, upon request by someone, usually the mother.
Caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is a caesarean section birth requested by the pregnant woman without a medical reason.

Pfannenstiel incision

incisiontransverse (Pfannenstiel) incision
An incision of about 15 cm (6 inches) is then typically made through the mother's lower abdomen.
It is used for gynecologic and orthopedics surgeries, and it is the most common method for performing Caesarian sections today.

Obstetrical forceps

forcepsforceps deliveryobstetric forceps
In general, a forceps birth is likely to be safer for both the mother and baby than the alternatives — either a ventouse birth or a caesarean section — although caveats such as operator skill apply.

Posthumous birth

posthumous sonposthumousposthumous child
Most instances of posthumous birth involve the birth of a child after the death of its father, but the term is also applied to infants delivered after the death of the mother, usually by caesarean section.

Breastfeeding

breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
A woman can typically begin breastfeeding as soon as she is out of the operating room and awake.
Current research strongly supports immediate skin-to-skin mother-baby contact even if the baby is born by Cesarean surgery.

Postpartum bleeding

postpartum hemorrhagepostpartum haemorrhagepost-partum haemorrhage
The increased risks include breathing problems in the baby and amniotic fluid embolism and postpartum bleeding in the mother.
It also occurs more commonly following caesarean sections, those in whom medications are used to start labor, those requiring the use of a vacuum or forceps, and those who have an episiotomy.

Labor induction

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Induction of labor in those who are either at or after term improves outcomes for the baby and decreases the number of C-sections performed.

Delivery after previous caesarean section

VBACvaginal birth after Caesareanvaginal birth after C-section
A trial of vaginal birth after C-section may be possible.
* Caesarean section

Vacuum extraction

ventousevacuum extractorsuction
It may be an alternative to a forceps delivery and caesarean section.

Placenta praevia

placenta previamislocated placentaruptured placenta
Risk factors include pregnancy at an older age and smoking as well as prior cesarean section, labor induction, or termination of pregnancy.

Vaginal delivery

vaginal birthspontaneous vaginal deliveryvaginal
A caesarean section is often necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk.
The average length of a hospital stay for a normal vaginal delivery is 36–48 hours or with an episiotomy (a surgical cut to widen the vaginal canal) 48–60 hours, whereas a C-section is 72–108 hours.

Umbilical cord prolapse

cord prolapseprolapsed cordprolapse
Management focuses on quick delivery, usually by cesarean section.

Placental abruption

abruptio placentaeabruptionabruptio placenta
Risk factors include smoking, preeclampsia, prior abruption, trauma during pregnancy, cocaine use, and previous cesarean section.

Local anesthesia

regional anesthesialocallocal anaesthesia
The decision whether to perform general anesthesia or regional anesthesia (spinal or epidural anaesthetic) is important and is based on many indications, including how urgent the delivery needs to be as well as the medical and obstetric history of the woman.
In many situations, such as cesarean section, it is safer and therefore superior to general anesthesia.

Placenta accreta

Placenta percretaPlacenta incretableed to death during the birth of her baby
The risk of placenta accreta, a potentially life-threatening condition which is more likely to develop where a woman has had a previous caesarean section, is 0.13% after two caesarean sections, but increases to 2.13% after four and then to 6.74% after six or more.
The condition is increased in incidence by the presence of scar tissue i.e. Asherman's syndrome usually from past uterine surgery, especially from a past dilation and curettage, (which is used for many indications including miscarriage, termination, and postpartum hemorrhage), myomectomy, or caesarean section.

Uterine rupture

ruptured uterusrupturerupture of the uterus
A vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) confers a higher risk of uterine rupture (5 per 1,000), blood transfusion or endometritis (10 per 1,000), and perinatal death of the child (0.25 per 1,000).
Women who have had a prior rupture are generally recommended to have C-sections in subsequent pregnancies.

Pregnancy

pregnantfirst trimesterpregnant women
Caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is a medically unnecessary caesarean section, where the conduct of a childbirth via a caesarean section is requested by the pregnant patient even though there is not a medical indication to have the surgery.
Delivery before 39 weeks by labor induction or caesarean section is not recommended unless required for other medical reasons.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
This may include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, or problems with the placenta or umbilical cord.
Treatment can range from expectant management to expedited delivery by induction of labor or Caesarean section, in addition to medications.

Lower segment Caesarean section

Green Armytage forcepslower Caesarian sectionlower segment cesarean section
A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section.

Endometritis

endomyometritispelvic infectionPuerperal endometritis
A vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) confers a higher risk of uterine rupture (5 per 1,000), blood transfusion or endometritis (10 per 1,000), and perinatal death of the child (0.25 per 1,000).
Risk factors for endometritis following delivery include Caesarean section and prolonged rupture of membranes.

Hysterectomy

hysterectomiesradical hysterectomyvaginal hysterectomy
It is the second most commonly performed gynecological surgical procedure, after cesarean section, in the United States.

Obstructed labour

dystociaobstructed labordifficult birth
This may include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, or problems with the placenta or umbilical cord.
The treatment of obstructed labour may require cesarean section or vacuum extraction with possible surgical opening of the symphysis pubis.

Hysterotomy

A resuscitative hysterotomy, also known as a peri-mortem caesarean delivery, is an emergency caesarean delivery carried out where maternal cardiac arrest has occurred, to assist in resuscitation of the mother by removing the aortocaval compression generated by the gravid uterus.
A hysterotomy is an incision in the uterus, and is performed during a caesarean section.