A team of 4 performing a caesarean section
Backflow of cerebrospinal fluid through a 25 gauge spinal needle after puncture of the arachnoid mater during initiation of spinal anaesthesia
A 7-week-old caesarean section scar and linea nigra visible on a 31-year-old mother: Longitudinal incisions are still sometimes used.
Schematic drawing showing the principles of spinal anaesthesia.
Transvaginal ultrasonography of a uterus years after a caesarean section, showing the characteristic scar formation in its anterior part
Suturing of the uterus after extraction
Closed incision for low transverse abdominal incision after stapling has been completed
Removal of the baby
Illustration depicting caesarean section
A baby being removed from its dying mother's womb
A caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by medical missionary Robert William Felkin in 1879.
Saint Caesarius of Terracina, invoked for the success of caesarean delivery
Fictional 15th-century depiction of the birth of Julius Caesar

It may be done with a spinal block, where the woman is awake, or under general anesthesia.

- Caesarean section

Caesarean sections

- Spinal anaesthesia
A team of 4 performing a caesarean section

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Surgery underway at the Red Cross Hospital in Tampere, Finland during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.

Surgery

Medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

Medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

Surgery underway at the Red Cross Hospital in Tampere, Finland during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian surgical treatise
Sushruta, the author of Sushruta Samhita, one of the oldest texts on surgery
Hippocrates stated in the oath (c. 400 BC) that general physicians must never practice surgery and that surgical procedures are to be conducted by specialists
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510–1590), father of modern military surgery.
12th century medieval eye surgery in Italy
Joseph Lister, pioneer of antiseptic surgery
Hieronymus Fabricius, Operationes chirurgicae, 1685
John Syng Dorsey wrote the first American textbook on surgery
An operation in 1753, painted by Gaspare Traversi.

Spinal anesthesia may be used when the surgical site is too large or deep for a local block, but general anesthesia may not be desirable.

It emphasized the need to significantly improve the capacity for Bellwether procedures – laparotomy, caesarean section, open fracture care – which are considered a minimum level of care that first-level hospitals should be able to provide in order to capture the most basic emergency surgical care.