Backflow of cerebrospinal fluid through a 25 gauge spinal needle after puncture of the arachnoid mater during initiation of spinal anaesthesia
A team of 4 performing a caesarean section
Surgery underway at the Red Cross Hospital in Tampere, Finland during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
Schematic drawing showing the principles of spinal anaesthesia.
A 7-week-old caesarean section scar and linea nigra visible on a 31-year-old mother: Longitudinal incisions are still sometimes used.
Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian surgical treatise
Transvaginal ultrasonography of a uterus years after a caesarean section, showing the characteristic scar formation in its anterior part
Sushruta, the author of Sushruta Samhita, one of the oldest texts on surgery
Suturing of the uterus after extraction
Hippocrates stated in the oath (c. 400 BC) that general physicians must never practice surgery and that surgical procedures are to be conducted by specialists
Closed incision for low transverse abdominal incision after stapling has been completed
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510–1590), father of modern military surgery.
Removal of the baby
12th century medieval eye surgery in Italy
Illustration depicting caesarean section
Joseph Lister, pioneer of antiseptic surgery
A baby being removed from its dying mother's womb
Hieronymus Fabricius, Operationes chirurgicae, 1685
A caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by medical missionary Robert William Felkin in 1879.
John Syng Dorsey wrote the first American textbook on surgery
Saint Caesarius of Terracina, invoked for the success of caesarean delivery
An operation in 1753, painted by Gaspare Traversi.
Fictional 15th-century depiction of the birth of Julius Caesar

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are delivered through an incision in the mother's abdomen, often performed because vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk.

- Caesarean section

It may be done with a spinal block, where the woman is awake, or under general anesthesia.

- Caesarean section

Caesarean sections

- Spinal anaesthesia

Spinal anesthesia may be used when the surgical site is too large or deep for a local block, but general anesthesia may not be desirable.

- Surgery

Some sedation is sometimes provided to help the patient relax and pass the time during the procedure, but with a successful spinal anaesthetic the surgery can be performed with the patient wide awake.

- Spinal anaesthesia

It emphasized the need to significantly improve the capacity for Bellwether procedures – laparotomy, caesarean section, open fracture care – which are considered a minimum level of care that first-level hospitals should be able to provide in order to capture the most basic emergency surgical care.

- Surgery
Backflow of cerebrospinal fluid through a 25 gauge spinal needle after puncture of the arachnoid mater during initiation of spinal anaesthesia

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