A report on Caesaropapism

A small 
cross of gold sheet, with rubbings of coins of Justin II (Emperor in 565–574) and holes for nails or thread, Italian, 6th century
Icon depicting the Roman Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
The Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy combines Western and Byzantine elements.
Henry VIII (c. 1531)

Idea of combining the social and political power of secular government with religious power, or of making secular authority superior to the spiritual authority of the Church; especially concerning the connection of the Church with government.

- Caesaropapism
A small 
cross of gold sheet, with rubbings of coins of Justin II (Emperor in 565–574) and holes for nails or thread, Italian, 6th century

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St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli

Separation of church and state

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Philosophical and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the state.

Philosophical and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the state.

St. Augustine by Carlo Crivelli
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler
John Locke, English political philosopher argued for individual conscience, free from state control.
Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, whose letter to the Danbury Baptists Association is often quoted in debates regarding the separation of church and state
Countries with a state religion
H. B. Higgins, proponent of Section 116 in the Australian pre-Federation constitutional conventions
Azerbaijan and its main cities
Rui Barbosa had a large influence upon the text adopted as the 1891 Constitution of Brazil.
"Constitution no. 1", which is kept in the great hall of the Palace of the Constitutional Court and is used on the occasion of the presidential inauguration
Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church in Aups, Var département, which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. Such inscriptions on a church are very rare; this one was restored during the 1989 bicentennial of the French Revolution.
Courtroom with Crucifix in Nuremberg, Germany, June 2016
James Madison, drafter of the Bill of Rights
Thomas Jefferson's tombstone. The inscription, as he stipulated, reads, "Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of ... the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom ...."

Sometimes this began to be used by a monarch to support the notion that the king ruled both his own kingdom and Church within its boundaries, a theory known as caesaropapism.

Peter I, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (portrait by Paul Delaroche, 1838).

Church reform of Peter the Great

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Peter I, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (portrait by Paul Delaroche, 1838).
Patriarch Adrian.
Archbishop Theophan Prokopovich, Peter's ally in his reform of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Metropolitan Stephen Yavorsky

The Church Reform of Peter I introduced what some believe was a period of Caesaropapism in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, when the church apparatus effectively became a department of state.

Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'

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Official title of the Bishop of Moscow who is the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Official title of the Bishop of Moscow who is the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.

Abolished in 1721 by Peter the Great, the patriarchate was restored on 28 October (10 November by Gregorian calendar) 1917, by decision of the All-Russian Local Council.

Jesus represented as the Lamb of God (Agnus Dei), a common practice in Western Christianity

Western Christianity

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One of two sub-divisions of Christianity .

One of two sub-divisions of Christianity .

Jesus represented as the Lamb of God (Agnus Dei), a common practice in Western Christianity
St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the largest church building in the world today.
Timeline of the evolution of the church, beginning with early Christianity
Title page of the Lutheran Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae.
Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schaal and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu
Map of Europe showing the largest religions by region. Eastern Christianity is represented in blue, Islam in green, and the other colors represent branches of Western Christianity.
Saint Thomas Aquinas was one of the great Western scholars of the Medieval period.
Major branches and movements within Protestantism.

With the decline of the Roman Empire, distinctions appeared also in organization, since the bishops in the West were not dependent on the Emperor in Constantinople and did not come under the influence of the Caesaropapism in the Eastern Church.

Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. The artist depicted the troops of Constantine bearing the labarum.

Constantinian shift

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Used by some theologians and historians of antiquity to describe the political and theological changes that took place during the 4th-century under the leadership of Emperor Constantine the Great.

Used by some theologians and historians of antiquity to describe the political and theological changes that took place during the 4th-century under the leadership of Emperor Constantine the Great.

Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. The artist depicted the troops of Constantine bearing the labarum.
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed.

He claims that the change was not just freedom from persecution but an alliance between the State and the Church that led to a kind of Caesaropapism.

Byzantinism

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Political system and culture of the Byzantine Empire, and its spiritual successors the Orthodox Christian Balkan countries of Greece and Bulgaria especially, and to a lesser extent Serbia and some other Orthodox countries in Eastern Europe like Belarus, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine.

Political system and culture of the Byzantine Empire, and its spiritual successors the Orthodox Christian Balkan countries of Greece and Bulgaria especially, and to a lesser extent Serbia and some other Orthodox countries in Eastern Europe like Belarus, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine.

Among important qualities of the Empire was also the caesaropapism, the subjugation of church to the state.

Søren Kierkegaard

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Danish theologian, philosopher, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

Danish theologian, philosopher, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

When Michael (Mikael) Kierkegaard died on 9 August 1838 Søren had lost both his parents and all his brothers and sisters except for Peter who later became Bishop of Aalborg in the Danish State Lutheran Church.
From left to right: Christian Wolff, Ludvig Holberg, Johann Georg Hamann, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Plato and Socrates
Regine Olsen, a muse for Kierkegaard's writings
Kierkegaard's works
Fear and Trembling
Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments
A caricature of Kierkegaard published in The Corsair, a satirical journal
Matthew 6
The Sickness unto Death
The Parable of the Good Samaritan described in works of love
Matthew 6:33
"Vor Frue Kirke", the Lutheran cathedral in Copenhagen (completed 1829)
Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783–1872)
August Strindberg (1849–1912) from Sweden
Otto-Pfleiderer
1879 German edition of Brandes' biography about Søren Kierkegaard
William James (1890s)
Douglas V. Steere (right) with the Finnish sociologist Heikki Waris in the 1950s.
Karl Barth commemorative stamp
Mortimer Adler
Friedrich Schleiermacher
Theodor Adorno in 1964
Emmanuel Levinas
Jean-Paul Sartre in 1967
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von Schelling
Christian VIII of Denmark
The Søren Kierkegaard Statue in the Royal Library Garden in Copenhagen
Portrait of Ludwig Wittgenstein who once stated that Kierkgaard was "by far the most profound thinker of the [nineteenth] century. Kierkegaard was a saint."
From left to right: Erich Fromm, Viktor Frankl and Rollo May

He was extremely critical of the doctrine and practice of Christianity as a state-controlled religion like the Church of Denmark.

Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

Russian Greek Catholic Church

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Sui iuris Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church.

Sui iuris Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church.

Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

In 1441, however, Grand Prince Vasily II of Moscow embraced Caesaropapism by ordering the imprisonment of Isidore of Kiev, the Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus', for attempting to implement the reunion decrees of the Council of Florence, and his replacement by Metropolitan Jonah.

Monogramme of Christ (the Chi Rho) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th-century AD, marble, Musei Vaticani, on display in a temporary exhibition at the Colosseum in Rome, Italy

State church of the Roman Empire

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The state church of the Roman Empire refers to the church approved by the Roman emperors after Theodosius I issued the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, which recognized the catholic orthodoxy of Nicene Christians in the Great Church as the Roman Empire's state religion.

The state church of the Roman Empire refers to the church approved by the Roman emperors after Theodosius I issued the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, which recognized the catholic orthodoxy of Nicene Christians in the Great Church as the Roman Empire's state religion.

Monogramme of Christ (the Chi Rho) on a plaque of a sarcophagus, 4th-century AD, marble, Musei Vaticani, on display in a temporary exhibition at the Colosseum in Rome, Italy
Icon depicting Constantine and the bishops of the Council of Nicaea (325). The centrally placed and haloed Emperor holds the Creed of the First Council of Constantinople (381).
Missorium of Emperor Theodosius I, who declared Nicene Christianity to be the State religion of the Roman Empire. This piece was found in Almendralejo.
Changes in extent of the Empire ruled from Constantinople. 476 End of the Western Empire; 550 Conquests of Justinian I; 717 Accession of Leo the Isaurian; 867 Accession of Basil I; 1025 Death of Basil II; 1095 Eve of the First Crusade; 1170 Under Manuel I; 1270 Under Michael VIII Palaiologos; 1400 Before the fall of Constantinople
The Hagia Sophia basilica in Constantinople, for centuries the largest church building in the world.
Odoacer's kingdom in 480, after annexing Dalmatia and most of Sicily.
A map of the five patriarchates in the Eastern Mediterranean as constituted by Justinian I. Rome is coloured in pink, Constantinople in green, Antioch in blue, Jerusalem in pink and Alexandria in yellow. Leo III extended the jurisdiction of Constantinople to the territories bordered in pink.
A map of Muslim expansion in the 7th and 8th centuries.
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The spread of Christianity in Europe by 1000.
The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor.

However, Justinian claimed "the right and duty of regulating by his laws the minutest details of worship and discipline, and also of dictating the theological opinions to be held in the Church".

Original film poster by Howard Terpning

A Man for All Seasons (1966 film)

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1966 British historical drama film directed and produced by Fred Zinnemann, adapted by Robert Bolt from his play of the same name.

1966 British historical drama film directed and produced by Fred Zinnemann, adapted by Robert Bolt from his play of the same name.

Original film poster by Howard Terpning

Embracing Caesaropapism, the bishops and Parliament accede to the king's demands and renounce all allegiance to the Pope.