Cairn

burial cairncairnsburial cairns cairnscairn moundCarnduckedDucks (hiking)heap of stonespile of rocks
A cairn is a man-made pile (or stack) of stones.wikipedia
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Inuksuk

InukshukinuksuitInunnguaq
An ancient example is the inuksuk (plural inuksuit), used by the Inuit, Inupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America.
An inuksuk (plural inuksuit) (from the ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ; alternatively inukhuk in Inuinnaqtun, iñuksuk in Iñupiaq, inussuk in Greenlandic, and sometimes inukshuk in English ) is a manmade stone landmark or cairn built for use by the Inuit, Iñupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America.

Trail blazing

waymarkedwaymarkblazed
Cairns are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundras.
Other navigational aids, such as cairns, are used where blazes are unsuitable.

Megalith

megalithicmegalithic tombmegaliths
They vary in size from small stone markers to entire artificial hills, and in complexity from loose conical rock piles to delicately balanced sculptures and elaborate feats of megalithic engineering.
They were covered by a stone cairn or earth barrow.

Tumulus

tumuliburial moundbarrow
The latter are often relatively massive Bronze Age or earlier structures which, like kistvaens and dolmens, frequently contain burials; they are comparable to tumuli (kurgans), but of stone construction instead of earthworks.
A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.

Tomb

sepulchrechest tombtombs
However, since prehistory, they have also been built and used as burial monuments; for defense and hunting; for ceremonial purposes, sometimes relating to astronomy; to locate buried items, such as caches of food or objects; and to mark trails, among other purposes.

Brittany

BretonBritannyBretagne
The word cairn derives from Scots cairn (with the same meaning), in turn from Scottish Gaelic càrn, which is essentially the same as the corresponding words in other native Celtic languages of Britain, Ireland and Brittany, including Welsh carn (and carnedd), Breton karn, Irish carn, and Cornish karn or carn.
The oldest monuments, cairns, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows.

Interstate 476

I-476Northeast ExtensionNortheast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike
A large cairn, commonly referred to as "the igloo" by the locals, was built atop a hill next to the I-476 highway in Radnor, Pennsylvania and is a part of a series of large rock sculptures initiated in 1988 to symbolize the township's Welsh heritage and to beautify the visual imagery along the highway.
Stone monuments, including a large stone cairn atop a hill and a large crushed-stone image of a mythological griffin on a hillside, were constructed at the Route 30 interchange to commemorate Radnor's history as part of the Welsh Tract.

Matthew Flinders

Flinders[Matthew] FlindersCaptain Matthew Flinders
Another is the Matthew Flinders Cairn on the side of Arthur's Seat, a small mountain on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, Australia.
Here, Flinders was drawing upon a British tradition of constructing a stone cairn to mark a historical location.

Hermes

Hermes CriophorusMercuryHermes Psychopompus
In the mythology of ancient Greece, cairns were associated with Hermes, the god of overland travel.
Scholarly speculation that "Hermes" derives from a more primitive form meaning "one cairn" is disputed.

Battle of Isandlwana

IsandlwanaBattle of IsandhlwanaIsandhlwana
One example is a series of many cairns marking British soldiers' mass graves at the site of the Battle of Isandlwana, South Africa.
Evidence shows that many of the bodies, today marked by cairns, were found in several large groups around the camp – including one stand of around 150 men.

Ovoo

obooaobaoovoo/aobao
A traditional and often decorated, heap-formed cairn called an ovoo is made in Mongolia.
Ovoo, oboo, or obo (овоо, Traditional Mongol:, "heap"; Chinese: 敖包 áobāo, lit. "magnificent bundle [i.e. shrine]") are sacred stone heaps used as altars or shrines in Mongolian folk religious practice and in the religion of other Mongolic peoples.

Salweyn

Cairns (taalo) are a common feature at El Ayo, Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul, Heis, Salweyn and Macajilayn, among other places.
The site contains a very large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km.

Buffalo jump

bison jumpbison jumpsbuffalo jumps
In Norse Greenland, cairns were used as a hunting implement, a game-driving "lane", used to direct reindeer towards a game jump.
Buffalo jump sites are often identified by rock cairns, which were markers designating "drive lanes", by which bison would be funneled over the cliff.

Bronze Age

Late Bronze AgeEarly Bronze AgeBronze
The latter are often relatively massive Bronze Age or earlier structures which, like kistvaens and dolmens, frequently contain burials; they are comparable to tumuli (kurgans), but of stone construction instead of earthworks. Starting in the Bronze Age, burial cists were sometimes interred into cairns, which would be situated in conspicuous positions, often on the skyline above the village of the deceased.
For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow housed the dead, Early Bronze Age people buried their dead in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns.

Cist

cistsstone cistcist burial
Starting in the Bronze Age, burial cists were sometimes interred into cairns, which would be situated in conspicuous positions, often on the skyline above the village of the deceased.
A cist may have been associated with other monuments, perhaps under a cairn or long barrow.

Bodmin Moor

BodminBodmin Moor, NorthFoweymore
Cornwall (Kernow) itself may actually be named after the cairns that dot its landscape, such as Cornwall's highest point, Brown Willy Summit Cairn, a 5 m (16 ft) high and 24 m (79 ft) diameter mound atop Brown Willy hill in Bodmin Moor, an area with many ancient cairns.
It was also in this era that the production of various megalithic monuments began, predominantly long cairns (three of which have currently been identified, at Louden, Catshole and Bearah) and stone circles (sixteen of which have been identified).

Chambered cairn

chambered cairnsChambered long cairnCairn
A chambered cairn is a burial monument, usually constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a sizeable (usually stone) chamber around and over which a cairn of stones was constructed.

El Ayo

CeelaayoElaayo
Cairns (taalo) are a common feature at El Ayo, Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul, Heis, Salweyn and Macajilayn, among other places.
Additionally, a number of small- to medium-sized cairns are especially concentrated on the plain that lies between the coast adjacent to El Ayo and an inland ridge around 2 km in length.

Heis (town)

HeisMundusMundus/Xīs
Cairns (taalo) are a common feature at El Ayo, Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul, Heis, Salweyn and Macajilayn, among other places.
A large collection of cairns of various types lie near the city.

Macajilayn

Cairns (taalo) are a common feature at El Ayo, Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul, Heis, Salweyn and Macajilayn, among other places.
The site contains a number of cairns, from which excavations have yielded Roman and Nubian imports.

Qa’ableh

Qa'ableh
Cairns (taalo) are a common feature at El Ayo, Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul, Heis, Salweyn and Macajilayn, among other places.
The town is believed to harbor the tombs of former kings from early periods of Somali history, as evidenced by the many ancient burial structures and cairns (taalo) that are found here.

Rujm

Rujm el-Meshrefeh
It can be translated as "mound, cairn, hill, spur", and also as "stone heap" or "tumulus".

Unchambered long cairn

Long cairn
However, proving the existence of wooden chambers under a cairn is not possible without excavation work.

Clearance cairn

Cairnfieldslinear cairns
A clearance cairn is an irregular and unstructured collection of fieldstones which have been removed from arable land or pasture to allow for more effective agriculture and collected into a usually low mound or cairn.

Clava cairn

Balnuaran of ClavaClava groupBalnuaran
The Clava cairn is a type of Bronze Age circular chamber tomb cairn, named after the group of three cairns at Balnuaran of Clava, to the east of Inverness in Scotland.