Cairo

Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Qasr El Nil Bridge
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo weather observations by French savants
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
The interior of Ramses Station
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

- Cairo

500 related topics

Relevance

The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures

Giza pyramid complex

Site on the Giza Plateau in Greater Cairo, Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza.

Site on the Giza Plateau in Greater Cairo, Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza.

The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures
Giza pyramid complex (map)
Aerial view from north of cultivated Nile valley with the pyramids in the background
Pyramids of Ghizeh. 1893. Egypt; heliogravure after original views. Wilbour Library of Egyptology. Brooklyn Museum
The Great Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza in 1914 (Autochrome Lumière).
The complex in 1955
The Great Sphinx partially excavated, photo taken between 1867 and 1899
The Giza pyramid complex at night
One face of the Pyramid of Khafre in Giza, as seen from Khafre's valley temple
Giza pyramid complex seen from above
The Dream Stele between the Sphinx's front legs

The site is at the edges of the Western Desert, approximately 9 km west of the Nile River in the city of Giza, and about 13 km southwest of the city centre of Cairo.

Fustat

The first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule, and the historical centre of modern Cairo.

The first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule, and the historical centre of modern Cairo.

The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As. Though none of the original structure remains, this mosque was the first one built in Egypt, and it was around this location, at the site of the tent of the commander Amr ibn al-As, that the city of Fustat was built.
Lustreware Plate with Bird Motif, 11th century. Archaeological digs have found many kilns and ceramic fragments in Fustat, and it was likely an important production location for Islamic ceramics during the Fatimid period.
The ruins of Fustat in Old Cairo
Indian textile fragment, circa 1545 – 1645, found in Fustat. Old, discarded textile fragments are commonly found in the area, preserved in the dry climate of Egypt.

The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region and created a new city as a royal enclosure for the Caliph.

Cinema of Egypt

Poster for the Egyptian film Yahya el hub (1938).
Poster for the Egyptian film Berlanti (1944).

The cinema of Egypt refers to the flourishing film industry based in Cairo which is known to be the Hollywood of the MENA region.

Al-Azhar University portal

Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University portal
Al-Azhar University portal
Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, Egypt
Interior of Al-Azhar mosque left
Floor plan of Al Azhar Mosque
An entrance to the mosque and university. The Minaret of Qunsah al Ghuri is visible on the right.
An Azhari institute in Tanta
Gateway
Interior of a dome in Al-Azhar mosque.
A chandelier adorns the woodworked ceiling of a prayer hall.
A study hall

The Al-Azhar University (جامعة الأزهر (الشريف),, "the University of (the honorable) Al-Azhar") is a public university in Cairo, Egypt.

Arab League

Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Arab League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic and Palestine
Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
 1940s 1950s 1960s  1970s
Headquarters of the Arab League, Cairo.
Administrative divisions in the Arab League.
2013 Arab League Summit Logo
OAPEC Members

The Arab League was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 initially with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

Evolution of the Fatimid state

Fatimid Caliphate

Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelvth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east.

Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelvth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east.

Evolution of the Fatimid state
Map of Abu Abdallah's campaigns and battles during the overthrow of the Aghlabids
Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, built by the Fatimids between 970 and 972
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, commissioned by Al-'Aziz in 990 and completed by al-Hakim in 1013 (later renovated in the 1980s by the Dawoodi Bohra)
Al-Juyushi Mosque, Cairo, overlooking the city from the Muqattam Hills
Bab al-Futuh, one of the gates of Cairo dating from Badr al-Jamali's reconstruction of the city walls (1987)
Al-Salih Tala'i Mosque in Cairo, built by Tala'i ibn Ruzzik in 1160 and originally intended to house the head of Husayn (the head ended up being interred instead at the present-day al-Hussein Mosque)
The original Fatimid-period mihrab inside the al-Azhar Mosque
Side chapel in the Hanging Church in Old Cairo, including frescoes (partly visible behind the screen here) dating from the late 12th or 13th century, before the church's later renovation
Cover page of the Leningrad Codex, a manuscript of the Hebrew Bible copied in Cairo/Fustat in the early 11th century
Entrance portal of the Great Mosque of Mahdia (10th century)
Fragment of a bowl depicting a mounted warrior, 11th century. Fatimid dynasty, found in Fustat, Egypt. Brooklyn Museum

In 969, during the reign of al-Mu'izz, they conquered Egypt, and in 973 the caliphate was moved to the new capital of Cairo.

Deshret, the Red Crown of Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt

Deshret, the Red Crown of Lower Egypt
Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes

Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى ; ) is the northernmost region of Egypt, which consists of the fertile Nile Delta between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea, from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

Memphis, Egypt

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Colossus of Rameses II

The city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile.

Islamic Cairo

The excavated remains of Fustat in 2009
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built in the 9th century. It is a rare and outstanding example of preserved Abbasid architecture outside Iraq.
Bab al-Futuh, one of the northern gates of Cairo built by the Fatimid vizier Badr al-Jamali in the late 11th century
Al-Azhar Mosque, founded by the Fatimids in 972. (The minarets were added later during the Mamluk period.)
The Citadel of Salah ad-Din (Saladin), founded in 1176 and further developed by other rulers after him. The 19th-century Mosque of Muhammad Ali is visible overlooking its walls.
Traditional residences in Cairo fronted by mashrabiyya windows (1867 photo)
Detailed map of Cairo from the Description de l'Égypte, c. 1802
Sabil of Isma'il Pasha, commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha in 1828
Map of historic Cairo, overlaid with present road network, with most of the main surviving monuments indicated.
Ghuriya buildings and the market street in between them, painted by David Roberts in 1839.
Khan el-Khalili, the major souq or bazaar center of medieval Cairo.

Islamic Cairo (قاهرة المعز, meaning: Al-Mu'izz's Cairo), also called Historic Cairo or Medieval Cairo, refers generically to the historic areas of Cairo, Egypt, that existed before the city's modern expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries; particularly the central parts around the old walled city and around the Citadel of Cairo.

Map of Ancient Egypt with its historical nomes, "Upper Egypt" is in the lower portion of the map

Upper Egypt

Southern portion of Egypt and is composed of the lands on both sides of the Nile that extend downriver between Nubia and Lower Egypt in the north.

Southern portion of Egypt and is composed of the lands on both sides of the Nile that extend downriver between Nubia and Lower Egypt in the north.

Map of Ancient Egypt with its historical nomes, "Upper Egypt" is in the lower portion of the map
Hedjet, the White Crown of Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile beyond modern-day Aswan, downriver (northward) to the area of El-Ayait, which places modern-day Cairo in Lower Egypt.