A report on CairoMemphis, EgyptEgypt and Fustat

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As. Though none of the original structure remains, this mosque was the first one built in Egypt, and it was around this location, at the site of the tent of the commander Amr ibn al-As, that the city of Fustat was built.
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
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Lustreware Plate with Bird Motif, 11th century. Archaeological digs have found many kilns and ceramic fragments in Fustat, and it was likely an important production location for Islamic ceramics during the Fatimid period.
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
The ruins of Fustat in Old Cairo
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
Indian textile fragment, circa 1545 – 1645, found in Fustat. Old, discarded textile fragments are commonly found in the area, preserved in the dry climate of Egypt.
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
Qasr El Nil Bridge
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Cairo weather observations by French savants
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
The interior of Ramses Station
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Colossus of Rameses II
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Egypt's topography
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Cairo Tower at night
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Suez Canal
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
Smog in Cairo
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
Traffic in Cairo
The Suez Canal Bridge
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Cairo University
Smog in Cairo
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Traffic in Cairo
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Cairo (القاهرة, ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

- Cairo

Its ruins are located near the modern town of Mit Rahina (ميت رهينة), 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

- Memphis, Egypt

It was built adjacent to what is now known as Old Cairo by the Rashidun Muslim general 'Amr ibn al-'As immediately after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, and featured the Mosque of Amr, the first mosque built in Egypt.

- Fustat

Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the Giza pyramid complex and the ancient cities of Memphis and Heliopolis are located in its geographical area.

- Cairo

Located near the Nile Delta, the city first developed as Fustat, a settlement founded after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640 next to an existing ancient Roman fortress, Babylon.

- Cairo

Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast.

- Egypt

The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region and created a new city as a royal enclosure for the Caliph.

- Fustat

Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest.

- Egypt

The city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile.

- Memphis, Egypt

For thousands of years, the capital of Egypt was moved with different cultures through multiple locations up and down the Nile, such as Thebes and Memphis, depending on which dynasty was in power.

- Fustat

Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat (or Fostat) in 641 AD. Afterward it was largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements.

- Memphis, Egypt

The Arabs founded the capital of Egypt called Fustat, which was later burned down during the Crusades.

- Egypt

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Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

Alexandria

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Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Alexander the Great
The Lighthouse of Alexandria on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).
Alexandria in the late 18th century, by Luigi Mayer
Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 x,, Versailles
The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806
Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
Map of the city in the 1780s, by Louis-François Cassas.
Macedonian Army, shown on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Engraving by L. F. Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.
Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain
Lake Mariout
Egypt – Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
Roman Amphitheater
Roman Pompey's Pillar
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Citadel of Qaitbay
Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria
Collège Saint Marc
Lycée Français d'Alexandrie
Borg El Arab International Airport
Alexandria port
Misr Railway Station
An Alexandria tram
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Alexandria Stadium
The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
Shalalat Gardens
Montaza Garden
Alexandria Art Centre
Alexandria Opera House
Fawzia Fahmy Palace
Alexander the Great's statue
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Montaza Palace
Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque

Alexandria ( or ; الإسكندرية ; ) is a Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt's capital.

The city extends about 40 km along the northern coast of Egypt, and is the largest city on the Mediterranean, the second-largest in Egypt (after Cairo), the fourth-largest city in the Arab world, the ninth-largest city in Africa, the ninth-largest urban area in Africa, and the 79th-largest urban area by population on Earth.

It retained this status for almost a millennium, through the period of Roman and Eastern Roman rule until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).