Al-Masalla obelisk, the largest surviving monument from Heliopolis
Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Al-Masalla obelisk, the largest surviving monument from Heliopolis, pictured in 2001.
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Map of ancient Lower Egypt showing Heliopolis
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
Model of a Votive Temple Gateway at Heliopolis, Dynasty XIX
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
Battle of Heliopolis during Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1800
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
Qasr El Nil Bridge
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Cairo weather observations by French savants
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
The interior of Ramses Station
Colossus of Rameses II
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

It is now located in Ayn Shams, a northeastern suburb of Cairo.

- Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)

Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the Giza pyramid complex and the ancient cities of Memphis and Heliopolis are located in its geographical area.

- Cairo

Alexander the Great, on his march from Pelusium to Memphis, halted at this city.

- Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)

The city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile.

- Memphis, Egypt

Enriched by centuries of veneration, the temple was one of the three foremost places of worship in Ancient Egypt, the others being the great temples of Ra in Heliopolis, and of Amun in Thebes.

- Memphis, Egypt
Al-Masalla obelisk, the largest surviving monument from Heliopolis

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