Cairo

Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Qasr El Nil Bridge
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo weather observations by French savants
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
The interior of Ramses Station
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

- Cairo

225 related topics

Alpha

Egypt

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

60px
Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast.

Evolution of the Fatimid state

Fatimid Caliphate

Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelvth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east.

Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelvth centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it ranged from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east.

Evolution of the Fatimid state
Map of Abu Abdallah's campaigns and battles during the overthrow of the Aghlabids
Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, built by the Fatimids between 970 and 972
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, commissioned by Al-'Aziz in 990 and completed by al-Hakim in 1013 (later renovated in the 1980s by the Dawoodi Bohra)
Al-Juyushi Mosque, Cairo, overlooking the city from the Muqattam Hills
Bab al-Futuh, one of the gates of Cairo dating from Badr al-Jamali's reconstruction of the city walls (1987)
Al-Salih Tala'i Mosque in Cairo, built by Tala'i ibn Ruzzik in 1160 and originally intended to house the head of Husayn (the head ended up being interred instead at the present-day al-Hussein Mosque)
The original Fatimid-period mihrab inside the al-Azhar Mosque
Side chapel in the Hanging Church in Old Cairo, including frescoes (partly visible behind the screen here) dating from the late 12th or 13th century, before the church's later renovation
Cover page of the Leningrad Codex, a manuscript of the Hebrew Bible copied in Cairo/Fustat in the early 11th century
Entrance portal of the Great Mosque of Mahdia (10th century)
Fragment of a bowl depicting a mounted warrior, 11th century. Fatimid dynasty, found in Fustat, Egypt. Brooklyn Museum

In 969, during the reign of al-Mu'izz, they conquered Egypt, and in 973 the caliphate was moved to the new capital of Cairo.

Mamluk Sultanate

State that ruled Egypt, the Levant and the Hejaz (western Arabia) in the mid-13th–early 16th centuries.

State that ruled Egypt, the Levant and the Hejaz (western Arabia) in the mid-13th–early 16th centuries.

Extent of the Mamluk Sultanate under Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad
Four horsemen taking part in a contest. From 'Manual on the Arts of Horsemanship' by al-Aqsara'i. Cairo, 1366. Chester Beatty Library
Mausoleum chamber of sultan Baibars (1260-1277) in Al-Zahiriyah Library in Damascus
Enameled and gilded bottle with the scene of battle. Egypt, late 13th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art
Interior of the Mausoleum of sultan Qalawun
Interior of the Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad Mosque, featuring mihrab and minbar.
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan
First pages from the Qur'an commissioned by sultan Al-Ashraf Sha'ban. This manuscript is part of the National Library of Egypt's Collection of Mamluk Qur'an Manuscripts inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register
Interior of the Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Barquq
Wikala of Al-Ghuri
Finispiece from the Qur'an copied by Ahmad ibn Kamal al-Mutatabbib in 1334. This manuscript is part of the National Library of Egypt's Collection of Mamluk Qur'an Manuscripts inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register
Mamluk-era astrolabe with Coptic numerals, dated 1282/1283. This astrolabe and other items of its kind are proof that Mamluks still used Coptic numerals and Coptic calendar for various practical and scientific purposes. Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum
Mamluk lancers, early 16th century (etching by Daniel Hopfer). British Museum
Mamluk Wool Carpet, Egypt, circa 1500-1550. Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
Baptistère de Saint Louis, basin from the reign of al-Nasir Muhammad, which from the 17th century was used as a baptismal font for French Kings. Louvre
Mosque lamp of Amir Qawsun. Metropolitan Museum of Art
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay (built 1470–1474), one of the finest examples of late Mamluk architecture

Cairo remained the capital of the sultanate and its social, economic and administrative center, with the Cairo Citadel serving as the sultan's headquarters.

Islamic Cairo

The excavated remains of Fustat in 2009
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built in the 9th century. It is a rare and outstanding example of preserved Abbasid architecture outside Iraq.
Bab al-Futuh, one of the northern gates of Cairo built by the Fatimid vizier Badr al-Jamali in the late 11th century
Al-Azhar Mosque, founded by the Fatimids in 972. (The minarets were added later during the Mamluk period.)
The Citadel of Salah ad-Din (Saladin), founded in 1176 and further developed by other rulers after him. The 19th-century Mosque of Muhammad Ali is visible overlooking its walls.
Traditional residences in Cairo fronted by mashrabiyya windows (1867 photo)
Detailed map of Cairo from the Description de l'Égypte, c. 1802
Sabil of Isma'il Pasha, commissioned by Muhammad Ali Pasha in 1828
Map of historic Cairo, overlaid with present road network, with most of the main surviving monuments indicated.
Ghuriya buildings and the market street in between them, painted by David Roberts in 1839.
Khan el-Khalili, the major souq or bazaar center of medieval Cairo.

Islamic Cairo (قاهرة المعز, meaning: Al-Mu'izz's Cairo), also called Historic Cairo or Medieval Cairo, refers generically to the historic areas of Cairo, Egypt, that existed before the city's modern expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries; particularly the central parts around the old walled city and around the Citadel of Cairo.

Ayyubid dynasty

The founding dynasty of the medieval Sultanate of Egypt established by Saladin in 1171, following his abolition of the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt.

The founding dynasty of the medieval Sultanate of Egypt established by Saladin in 1171, following his abolition of the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt.

Ayyubid Sultanate of Egypt (in pink) at the death of Saladin in 1193
Sketch of the original "Eagle of Saladin" of the Cairo Citadel, Egypt.
A Dirhm coin depicting Saladin, c. 1189 CE
Virtually the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem passed into Ayyubid hands after their victory against the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin in 1187; illustration from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, circa 1490
Al-Kamil (right) and Frederick II signed a treaty restoring Jerusalem to the Crusaders for ten years; from Nuova Cronica, mid-14th century
Ayyubid territories in 1257. Area in bright red controlled by an-Nasir Yusuf, while the area under dark red was under the nominal control of al-Mughith Umar of Kerak
The Mongol conquest of Ayyubid Syria
An Ayyubid coin minted in Aleppo bearing the name of Emir al-Zahir
Minaret of the Great Mosque of the Aleppo Citadel, built by az-Zahir Ghazi in 1214
An example of Ayyubid pottery from Egypt
The Firdaws Madrasa was built in 1236 under the patronage of Dayfa Khatun, Aleppo
The Ayyubid wall in Cairo, uncovered during construction of Al-Azhar Park, January 2006
3D laser scan data image of the Bab al-Barqiyya Gate in the 12th century Ayyubid Wall that borders Al-Azhar Park. This fortified gate was constructed with interlocking volumes that surrounded the entrant in such a way as to provide greater security and control than typical city wall gates; image from the Aga Khan Foundation/CyArk research partnership

Saladin consolidated his control in Egypt after ordering Turan-Shah to put down a revolt in Cairo staged by the Fatimid army's 50,000-strong Nubian regiments.

Ottoman Mamluk lancers, early 16th century. Etching by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1526–1536), British Museum, London

Mamluk

Owned",<ref name="OxfordBusinessGroup"> meaning "slave", also transliterated as Mameluke, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke, or marmeluke) is a term most commonly referring to non-Arab, ethnically diverse (mostly Turkic, Caucasian, Eastern and Southeastern European) slave-soldiers and freed slaves to which were assigned military and administrative duties, serving the ruling Arab dynasties in the Muslim world.

Owned",<ref name="OxfordBusinessGroup"> meaning "slave", also transliterated as Mameluke, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke, or marmeluke) is a term most commonly referring to non-Arab, ethnically diverse (mostly Turkic, Caucasian, Eastern and Southeastern European) slave-soldiers and freed slaves to which were assigned military and administrative duties, serving the ruling Arab dynasties in the Muslim world.

Ottoman Mamluk lancers, early 16th century. Etching by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1526–1536), British Museum, London
Mail and plate armour with full horse armor of an Ottoman Mamluk horseman (circa 1550), Musée de l'Armée, Paris
A Muslim Greek Mamluk portrayed by Louis Dupré (oil on canvas, 1825)
A Mamluk nobleman from Aleppo (Ottoman Syria, 19th century)
An Egyptian Mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, Mameluke sword, yatagan and pistols.
The battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, 1299. depicting Mongol archers and Mamluk cavalry (14th-century illustration from a manuscript of the History of the Tatars)
Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan (left) along with the later Al-Rifa'i Mosque (right) and two Ottoman mosques (foreground) – Cairo
Mamluk-Syrian glassware vessels from the 14th century; in the course of trade, the middle vase shown ended up in Yemen and then China.
Mamluks attacking at the Fall of Tripoli in 1289
Charge of the Mamluk cavalry by Carle Vernet
Charge of the Mamluks during the Battle of Austerlitz by Felician Myrbach. An elite body of cavalry whom the French encountered during their campaign in Egypt in 1798, the Mamluks could trace their lineage of service to the Ottomans back to the mid-13th century.
The Second of May 1808: the charge of the Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard in Madrid, by Francisco de Goya
Massacre of the Mamelukes at the Cairo citadel in 1811.
A Mamluk on horseback, with a Piéton or foot-soldier mamluk and a Bedouin soldier, 1804
The mausoleum of Qutb al-Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.
Portrait of a Mamluk, 1779
A Mamluk cavalryman, drawing by Carle Vernet, 1810
The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamluks by Francisco de Goya (1814)
Armenian mamluk Roustam Raza was Napoleon's personal bodyguard; portrait by Jacques-Nicolas Paillot de Montabert
Soldiers of Napoleon's 62ème régiment de ligne and a Mameluk (historical reenactment)
Today's U.S. Marine Corps officers' Mameluke sword resembles those used by the Mamluks

The name "Burji" referred to their center at the citadel of Cairo.

The three madrasas at the Registan of Samarkand, at the center of the Timurid Renaissance

Madrasa

Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning.

Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning.

The three madrasas at the Registan of Samarkand, at the center of the Timurid Renaissance
250x250px
The Madrasa al-Mustansiriyya in Baghdad, established in 1227, one of the only Abbasid-era madrasas remaining today
Courtyard of the Nur al-Din Madrasa in Damascus, originally built in 1167 by Nur al-Din
An illustration of an "Arab university in Cairo" from 1869's Die Gartenlaube Journal
The Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay in Cairo, built in the 15th century. The bottom floor contained a sabil and the top floor held a kuttab
Courtyard of the Al-Azhar Mosque and University in Cairo, Egypt
Bosnian Madrasa, c. 1906
Al-Azhar Mosque and University in Cairo
The medrese of the Atik Valide Mosque, part of a külliye sponsored by Nurbanu Sultan (wife of Ottoman sultan Selim II) and designed by imperial architect Mimar Sinan in 1571
Ince Minaret Medrese (13th century) in Konya, now housing the Museum of Stone and Wood Art
Interior of the Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Hasan (14th century) in Cairo
Courtyard of the Ben Youssef Madrasa (16th century) in Marrakesh
Courtyard of the Ulugh Beg Madrasa (15th century) in Samarkand
The Salis Medrese, part of the Süleymaniye complex (16th century) in Istanbul
Şemsi Pasha Mosque and medrese (1580) in Üsküdar, Istanbul
Courtyard of the Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes
Alauddin Khalji's Madrasa, Qutb complex, built in the early-14th century in Delhi, India.
Quvvathul Islam Senior Madrassa, Taliparamba, India
This is a madarasa of the Jamia Masjid mosque in Srirangapatna, India. This mosque dates back to the 1700s and is where Tipu Sultan used to pray.
Madrasa e Faizan e Madina in Karachi, Pakistan
Students of Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah in Singapore
A Muslim kindergarten in Yangzhou, China

Although some major early mosques like the Great Mosque of Damascus or the Mosque of Amr ibn al-As in Cairo had separate rooms which were devoted to teaching, this distinction between "mosque" and "madrasa" was not very present.

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

Alexandria

Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Alexander the Great
The Lighthouse of Alexandria on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).
Alexandria in the late 18th century, by Luigi Mayer
Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 x,, Versailles
The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806
Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
Map of the city in the 1780s, by Louis-François Cassas.
Macedonian Army, shown on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Engraving by L. F. Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.
Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain
Lake Mariout
Egypt – Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
Roman Amphitheater
Roman Pompey's Pillar
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Citadel of Qaitbay
Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria
Collège Saint Marc
Lycée Français d'Alexandrie
Borg El Arab International Airport
Alexandria port
Misr Railway Station
An Alexandria tram
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Alexandria Stadium
The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
Shalalat Gardens
Montaza Garden
Alexandria Art Centre
Alexandria Opera House
Fawzia Fahmy Palace
Alexander the Great's statue
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Montaza Palace
Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque

The city extends about 40 km along the northern coast of Egypt, and is the largest city on the Mediterranean, the second-largest in Egypt (after Cairo), the fourth-largest city in the Arab world, the ninth-largest city in Africa, the ninth-largest urban area in Africa, and the 79th-largest urban area by population on Earth.

Abbasid Caliphate

The third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

The third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Folio from the Tarikhnama of Bal'ami depicting al-Saffah (r. 750–754) as he receives pledges of allegiance in Kufa
The city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 CE.
Battle of Talas, 751
Map of Abbasid Caliphate and its provinces c 788 (2nd century Hijri)
Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809) receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne at his court in Baghdad. Painting by German painter (1827–1918), dated 1864. Oil on canvas.
Gold dinar minted during the reign of al-Amin (809–813)
Map of Abbasid empire and other world empires in 9th century
Map of the fragmented Abbasid empire, with areas still under direct control of the Abbasid central government (dark green) and under autonomous rulers (light green) adhering to nominal Abbasid suzerainty, c. 892
Southwest Asia – c. 970 A.D
Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, 1244
Siege of Baghdad by the Mongols led by Hulagu Khan in 1258
Manuscript from the Abbasid era
Jabir ibn Hayyan, a pioneer in organic chemistry.
Ibn al-Haytham, "the father of Optics.
Baraka Palace in Samarra
Illustration from More tales from the Arabian nights (1915)
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb (1200 CE), in cemetery at Baghdad
9th-century harem wall painting fragments found in Samarra
Bowl with Kufic Inscription, 9th century, Brooklyn Museum
Qasr al-'Ashiq palace in Samarra, constructed during 877–882. Emir 'Amad al-Dawla wrote a poem about this palace. During the medieval period, it was referred to as "al-Ma'shuq (المعشوق)" which means "beloved".
Illustration showing a water clock given to Charlemagne by Harun al-Rashid
Windmills were among Abbasid inventions in technology.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq was an influential translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
Ukhaidir Fortress, located south of Karbala, is a large, rectangular fortress erected in 775 AD with a unique defensive style.
The provinces of Abbasid Caliphate in c. 850 under al-Mutawakkil
The Madrasa of Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, established in 1227, one of the only Abbasid-era madrasas remaining today

The Abbasid line of rulers, and Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261.

Gamal Abdel Nasser

Egyptian politician who served as the second president of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970.

Egyptian politician who served as the second president of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970.

Nasser in 1931
Nasser's name circled in Al-Gihad
Portrait of Nasser at law school in 1937
Nasser (center) with Ahmed Mazhar (left) in army, 1940
Nasser (first from left) with his unit in the Faluja pocket, displaying weapons captured from the Israeli Army during the 1948 war.
The Free Officers after the coup, 1953. Counterclockwise: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein (standing), Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Naguib, Youssef Seddik, and Ahmad Shawki.
Leaders of Egypt following the ouster of King Farouk, November 1952. Seated, left to right: Sulayman Hafez, Mohamed Naguib and Nasser
Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954
Nasser and Naguib saluting at the opening of the Suez Canal
Liberation organization in Alexandria invitation to Nasser speech 26 October 1954
Nasser greeted by crowds in Alexandria one day after his announcement of the British withdrawal and the assassination attempt against him, 27 October 1954.
Nasser and Imam Ahmad of North Yemen facing the camera, Prince Faisal of Saudi Arabia in white robes in the background, Amin al-Husayni of the All-Palestine Government in the foreground at the Bandung Conference, April 1955
Nasser submitting his vote for the referendum of the proposed constitution, 23 June 1956
Nasser raising the Egyptian flag over the Suez Canal city of Port Said to celebrate the final British military withdrawal from the country, June 1956
Nasser giving a speech at the opening of the Suez Canal
The signing of the regional defense pact between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Jordan, January 1957. At the forefront, from left right: Prime Minister Sulayman al-Nabulsi of Jordan, King Hussein of Jordan, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, Nasser, Prime Minister Sabri al-Asali of Syria
Nasser seated alongside Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr of North Yemen (center) and Shukri al-Quwatli (right), February 1958. North Yemen joined the UAR to form the United Arab States, a loose confederation.
Nasser (right) and Lebanese president Fuad Chehab (to Nasser's right) at the Syrian–Lebanese border during talks to end the crisis in Lebanon. Akram al-Hawrani stands third to Nasser's left, and Abdel Hamid Sarraj stands to Chehab's right, March 1959.
Nasser waving to crowds in Damascus, Syria, October 1960
Nasser (center) receiving Algerian president Ahmed Ben Bella (right) and Iraqi president Abdel Salam Aref (left) for the Arab League summit in Alexandria, September 1964. Ben Bella and Aref were close allies of Nasser.
Nasser before Yemeni crowds on his arrival to Sana'a, April 1964. In front of Nasser and giving a salute is Yemeni President Abdullah al-Sallal
Government officials attending Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque, 1959. From left to right; Interior Minister Zakaria Mohieddin, Nasser, Social Affairs Minister Hussein el-Shafei and National Union Secretary Anwar Sadat
Nasser being sworn in for a second term as Egypt's president, 25 March 1965
Nasser (center), King Hussein of Jordan (left) and Egyptian Army Chief of Staff Abdel Hakim Amer (right) at the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces headquarters in Cairo before signing a mutual defense pact, 30 May 1967
Egyptian demonstrators protesting Nasser's resignation, 1967
Nasser observing the Suez front with Egyptian officers during the 1968 War of Attrition. General Commander Mohamed Fawzi is directly behind Nasser, and to their left is Chief of Staff Abdel Moneim Riad.
Nasser brokering a ceasefire between Yasser Arafat of the PLO (left) and King Hussein of Jordan (right) at the emergency Arab League summit in Cairo on 27 September 1970, one day before Nasser's death
Nasser's funeral procession attended by five million mourners in Cairo, 1 October 1970
Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque in Cairo, the site of his burial
Nasser presenting prominent and blind writer Taha Hussein (standing in front of Nasser) with a national honors prize for literature, 1959
Nasser speaking to a homeless Egyptian man and offering him a job, after the man was found sleeping below the stage where Nasser was seated, 1959
Nasser waving to crowds in Mansoura, 1960
Anwar Sadat (left) and Nasser in the National Assembly, 1964. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president in 1970 and significantly departed from Nasser's policies throughout his rule.
Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan (left), Nasser, and Muammar Gaddafi of Libya (right) at the Tripoli Airport, 1969. Nimeiry and Gaddafi were influenced by Nasser's pan-Arabist ideas and the latter sought to succeed him as "leader of the Arabs".
Nasser and his family in Manshiyat al-Bakri, 1963. From left to right, his daughter Mona, his wife Tahia Kazem, daughter Hoda, son Abdel Hakim, son Khaled, son Abdel Hamid, and Nasser.

His funeral in Cairo drew five to six million mourners, and prompted an outpouring of grief across the Arab world.