Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Qasr El Nil Bridge
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo weather observations by French savants
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
The interior of Ramses Station
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

- Cairo

225 related topics


View of the Citadel, with the Ottoman-era gate of Bab al-'Azab, and the 19th-century Muhammad Ali Mosque.

Cairo Citadel

View of the Citadel, with the Ottoman-era gate of Bab al-'Azab, and the 19th-century Muhammad Ali Mosque.
Layout of the Cairo Citadel today.
View of the Citadel from the south in the late 19th century. The Mosque of Muhammad Ali, with its twin Ottoman-style minarets, is prominently visible.
The Eagle of Saladin from the citadel became the coat of arms of Egypt and other Arab states.
The two easternmost towers, fortified by al-Kamil in 1207: the Burj al-Ramla and the Burj al-Hadid.
Excavated remains of the Qa'a al-Ashrafiyya (Reception hall of al-Ashraf Khalil), on the terrace in front of the modern Police Museum.
The Nile aqueduct that supplied water to the Citadel, largely built in the Mamluk period.
View from the terrace south of the Muhammad Ali Mosque. On the left, the corner structure partially exposes the ruins of what are argued to be the lower levels of the former Ablaq Palace (Qasr al-Ablaq).
The ruins of the Great Iwan, as seen in the early 19th century (missing its dome), before it was demolished by Muhammad Ali.
The entrance of the Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad, with a typical Mamluk-era portal.
The Burj al-Muqattam, a large tower built by the Ottoman governor Ibrahim Pasha around 1525.
Bab al-'Azab, the northwestern entrance built in 1754. Although built in the Ottoman era, it emulates the Fatimid-era gate of Bab al-Futuh.
A view of the Citadel and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali, 1955
View of the Citadel from the southeast. The present-day visitor entrance is up the hill on the right.
Cross-section of Saladin's Well.
Courtyard of Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque. Domes and minaret of Mosque of Muhammad Ali is seen in the background.
Egyptian National Military Museum.

The Citadel of Cairo or Citadel of Saladin (قلعة صلاح الدين) is a medieval Islamic-era fortification in Cairo, Egypt, built by Salah ad-Din (Saladin) and further developed by subsequent Egyptian rulers.

Al-Azhar Mosque

The courtyard of the mosque, dating to the Fatimid period. Above, the minarets date from the Mamluk period. From left to right: the double-finial minaret of Qansuh al-Ghuri, the minaret of Qaytbay, and the minaret of Aqbugha (behind the dome).
The dome above the entrance to the prayer hall, crafted around 1138 under al-Hafiz.
A Mamluk bey
The Gate of Sultan Qaytbay, built in the late 15th century. (Photo from 1867)
Bab al-Muzayinīn (Gate of the Barbers), built by Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda during Ottoman rule. The minaret on the left, atop the Madrasa al-Aqbughawiyya, was also remodeled by Katkhuda, before being remodeled again in the 20th century.
Napoleon presenting an Egyptian bey a tricolor scarf (1798–1800).
Muhammad Ali, founder of the Alawiyya Dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1805 until the Egyptian Revolution in 1952
Courtyard of Al-Azhar Mosque, c. 1900
Gamal Abdel Nasser, who led the Egyptian Revolution in 1952 with Muhammad Naguib, instituted several reforms of al-Azhar
Hypostyle prayer hall with columns used from various periods in Egyptian history
The Fatimid mihrab of the mosque. This area has been modified and restored many times, but the stucco patterns in the half-dome (conch) of the niche are believed to be original.
Keel shaped arches along the courtyard wall with stucco ornaments inscribed
Minaret above the Madrassa al-Aqbughawiyya. Originally built during Mamluk rule as part of a stand-alone mosque, the minaret was remodeled by Katkhuda during the Ottoman period
The mihrab of the Madrasa al-Taybarsiyya.
The dome of the tomb and madrasa of Gawhar al-Qanaqba'i. (At the northeastern corner of the mosque.)
Minaret of Qaytbay
Double finial minaret of Qansuh al-Ghuri
Bab al-Muzayinīn (Gate of the Barbers)
Current mihrab and minbar in Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda's extension of the prayer hall.
The mosque in 2019, after a recent restoration

Al-Azhar Mosque (الجامع الأزهر), known in Egypt simply as al-Azhar, is a mosque in Cairo, Egypt in the historic Islamic core of the city.


Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

Major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa.

The Nile's drainage basin
Spring at Lake Victoria
White Nile in Uganda
Nile Delta from space
The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm
Map of Nile tributaries in modern Sudan, showing the Yellow Nile
Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), an ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BC
An aerial view of irrigation from the Nile River supporting agriculture in Luxor, Egypt
A felucca traversing the Nile near Aswan
John Hanning Speke c. 1863. Speke was the Victorian explorer who first reached Lake Victoria in 1858, returning to establish it as the source of the Nile by 1862.
A map of the Nile c. 1911, a time when its entire primary course ran through British occupations, condominiums, colonies, and protectorates
The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches
Dhows on the Nile
The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city.
Hydropower dams in the Nile (plus huge dam under construction in Ethiopia)
View of the Qasr El Nil Bridge in Cairo, with Gezira Island in the background
El Mek Nimr Bridge in Khartoum
Henry Morton Stanley in 1872. Stanley circumnavigated the lake and confirmed Speke's observations in 1875.
Composite satellite image of the White Nile
Village on the Nile, 1891
Riverboat on the Nile, Egypt 1900
Marsh along the Nile
A river boat crossing the Nile in Uganda
Murchison Falls in Uganda, between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga
The Nile in Luxor
The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite
The Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Nile in Cairo

The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, where Cairo is located on its large delta, and the river flows into the Mediterranean Sea at Alexandria.


Country in Western Asia, on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

Country in Western Asia, on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

Ruins of the Great Dam of Marib
A funerary stela featuring a musical scene, first century CE
Himyarite King Dhamar'ali Yahbur II
A Sabaean gravestone of a woman holding a stylized sheaf of wheat, a symbol of fertility in ancient Yemen
The interior of the Great Mosque of Sana'a, the oldest mosque in Yemen
Al-Qahyra (Cairo) Castle's Garden in Taiz, the capital of Yemen during the Rasulid's era
A 13th-century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a slave-market in the town of Zabid in Yemen.
Portuguese Viceroy Afonso de Albuquerque failed twice to conquer Aden, though the Portuguese Empire managed to rule Socotra until 1511.
Al Bakiriyya Ottoman Mosque in Sana'a, was built in 1597
Ottoman soldiers and Yemeni locals
Ruins of Thula fortress in 'Amran, where al-Mutahhar ibn Yahya barricaded himself against Ottoman attacks
Mocha was Yemen's busiest port in the 17th and 18th centuries
The building of the Legislative Council of Aden, built by the English in the 19th century as St. Mary's Church, was converted into the building of the Legislative Council in the 1960s, and is now a museum
The Ottoman Grand Vizier and Wāli of Yemen Ahmed Muhtar Pasha
Imam Yahya Hamid Ed-Din's house near Sana'a
Queen Elizabeth II holding a sword, prepared to knight subjects in Aden in 1954
Egyptian military intervention in North Yemen, 1962
British Army's counter-insurgency campaign in the British-controlled territories of South Arabia, 1967
Yemen Arab Republic (in orange) and South Yemen (in blue) before 1990
A topographic map of Yemen
Yemen's Köppen climate classification map is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.
Former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh at the Pentagon, 8 June 2004
Ousted Yemeni President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 7 May 2015
Protest against Saudi blockade of Yemen, New York City, 2017
Soldiers of the Yemeni Army in 2011.
Map of the Federal Regions of Yemen
Governorates of Yemen
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Yemen's exports
A coffee plantation in North Yemen
Drilling for oil using a land rig
Yemen's and Shia/Sunni regions. Shia Muslims predominant in the green area of Yemen's West, with the rest of Yemen being Sunni Muslims
Literacy rate of the population aged 15 or older (1995–2015) by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
A Yemeni doctor examines an infant in a USAID-sponsored health care clinic
The National Museum in Sana'a
Typical Yemeni House
Dance in Sa'dah, northwestern Yemen
High-rise architecture at Shibam, Wadi Hadramawt‌

The Ottoman Empire conquered Egypt, hanging the last Mamluk Sultan in Cairo.


The first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule, and the historical centre of modern Cairo.

The first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule, and the historical centre of modern Cairo.

The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As. Though none of the original structure remains, this mosque was the first one built in Egypt, and it was around this location, at the site of the tent of the commander Amr ibn al-As, that the city of Fustat was built.
Lustreware Plate with Bird Motif, 11th century. Archaeological digs have found many kilns and ceramic fragments in Fustat, and it was likely an important production location for Islamic ceramics during the Fatimid period.
The ruins of Fustat in Old Cairo
Indian textile fragment, circa 1545 – 1645, found in Fustat. Old, discarded textile fragments are commonly found in the area, preserved in the dry climate of Egypt.

The remains of the city were eventually absorbed by nearby Cairo, which had been built to the north of Fustat in 969 when the Fatimids conquered the region and created a new city as a royal enclosure for the Caliph.

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map

Köppen climate classification

One of the most widely used climate classification systems.

One of the most widely used climate classification systems.

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
Tropical climate distribution
Dry climate distribution
Temperate climate distribution
Continental climate distribution
The snowy city of Sapporo
Polar climate distribution
North America
Central Asia
East Asia
South America
Western Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
New Zealand

Cairo, Egypt (BWh)

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

Memphis, Egypt

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Colossus of Rameses II

The city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile.

The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the site of Muhammad's first mosque in Medina. The present-day building is the result of many reconstructions and expansions up to modern times.

Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.

Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.

The Mosque of the Prophet, standing on the site of Muhammad's first mosque in Medina. The present-day building is the result of many reconstructions and expansions up to modern times.
Section of the Umayyad-era Mshatta Facade, now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, from a palace near Amman
The walls and minaret of the Great Mosque of Samarra built by the Abbasids in the 9th century
The mihrab and maqsura area of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, added to the mosque by al-Hakam II in the late 10th century
Bab al-Futuh gate built by the Fatimid vazir Badr al-Jamali
Shalamar Gardens, a Mughal paradise garden in Lahore, Pakistan
The sahn (courtyard) and minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia
Qusair 'Amra
An iwan in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Ribbed dome in the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, dating from the 10th century
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Mosque in Qasr al-Hallabat
Entrance courtyard of Qasr al-Hallabat
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (late 7th century)
Tarikhaneh Temple, a pre-Islamic monument built in Sasanian Persia which was later turned into a mosque, showing elements of Iranian architecture before the spread of Islam
The Registan is the ensemble of three madrasas, in Samarkand, modern day Uzbekistan
Shah Mosque in Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan
Portal of the Great Mosque of Divriği (1228–1229)
The Bāb al-Yaman (بَـاب ٱلْـيَـمَـن, Gate of the Yemen) in the Old City of Sana'a, Yemen
Demak Mosque One of the oldest surviving mosques in Indonesia.
The Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
A Tatar minaret dating from the 15th century
Almnara Tower Somalia
The 13th century Fakr ad-Din Mosque in Mogadishu
Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque at Muscat is the main mosque in the Sultanate of Oman, started in 1995 and inaugurated in 2001.
Faisal Mosque at Islamabad, Pakistan designed by Vedat Dalokay.
Museum of Islamic Art at Doha, Qatar designed by I. M. Pei.
Islamic geometric patterns in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Dome with squinches in the Palace of Ardashir of pre-Islamic Persia. squinches are one of the most significant Sasanian contribution to Islamic architecture<ref>{{cite web|last1=Huff|first1=D.|title=ARCHITECTURE iii. Sasanian Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica|url=|access-date=16 March 2019||publisher=Encyclopaedia Iranica}}</ref>
The dome of the Gur-i Amir Mausoleum in Samarqand
Non-radial rib vault in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Dome of the tomb of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv
Upper dome of Ālī Qāpū, Isfahan
VIew of the main dome at Humayun's Tomb in Delhi
Dome of Taj Mahal in Agra
The bulbous domes of the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
The main dome of Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta has tiles arranged in a stellate pattern to represent the night sky
The interior of the main dome of Shahi Hammam in Lahore
Schematic drawing of a pendentive dome
Central domes of the Hagia Sophia
Dome of the Kalenderhane Mosque
Selimiye Mosque, Edirne
Mashrabiya balcony in Bayt al-Suhaymi, Cairo (Egypt)
Hünkâr Mahfili (prayer space for the sultan) inside the Hagia Sophia (Turkey)
Use of Jali screen at Lahore Fort (Pakistan)
Jharokha balcony at Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur (India)
Design of a muqarnas quarter vault from the Topkapı Scroll
Muqarnas in the necropolis of Shah-i-Zinda, Samarqand
Muqarnas in the Alhambra
The muqarna of a mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Intricate design on the muqarna of Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore
Geometrical tile decoration (Zellij) in the Ben Youssef Madrasa in Marrakesh
Dome of the Shah Mosque in Isfahan with calligraphic inscription
Bengali Islamic terracotta on a 17th-century mosque in Tangail, Bangladesh
Tiles in Topkapı Palace, an example of Ottoman Architecture
Much of the interior of Emperor Jahangir's mausoleum in Lahore is adorned with Mughal-era frescoes.
Calligraphic inscription on the dome of the Mevlana mausoleum
Design of Ceiling in the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar
Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Cordoba (10th century)
Stucco-carved mihrab of Uljaytu at the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan (early 14th century)
Mihrab of the Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan in Cairo (14th century)
Ottoman mihrab with Iznik tiles in the Rüstem Pasha Mosque, Istanbul (16th century)
Mihrab of the Jama Masjid in Delhi (mid-17th century)
Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (early 9th century)
Minaret of Jam, Afghanistan (12th century)
Minaret of Sultan Qaytbay (15th century) at the Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo
Ottoman minarets of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul (early 17th century)
Qutb Minar of Delhi (12th century)
Medina quarter of Fez, Morocco
Figure-ground diagram of Algiers
Figure-ground diagram of a European town (1819)
Kharraqan Towers, mausoleums of Seljuk princes, built in 1068 and 1093 in Iran
Dome in the Friday Mosque of Isfahan, Iran, added in 1088–89 by Seljuk vizier Taj al-Mulk
Ghaznavid Tower of Mas'ud III near Ghazni (present-day Afghanistan), from the early 12th century
Ribat-i Sharaf caravanserai in Khorasan (northeastern Iran), built in 1114–1115
The Kalyan Minaret in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan), built in 1127 as part of a Qarakhanid congregational mosque
Toghrol Tower in Rayy, south of present-day Tehran (Iran), built in 1139 as the tomb of the Seljuk sultan Tughril
Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmad Sanjar (c. 1152) in Merv (present-day Turkmenistan)
Hospital of Nur al-Din, Damascus (1154)
Qarakhanid Mausoleums in Uzgen (Kyrgyzstan), second half of the 12th century
Minaret of the al-Nuri Mosque in Mosul (before its destruction in 2017), dating from the 12th century
Courtyard façade of the Great Mosque of Diyarbakir, founded in the 7th century and rebuilt by the Artuqids in the 12th century
Yedi Kardeş Tower in the city walls of Diyarbakir, built by Artuqid sultan Nasir al-Din Mahmud in 1208–1209
Mausoleum of Fakhr al-Din Razi or Il-Arslan in Kunya-Urgench (Turkmenistan), late 12th or early 13th century (Khwarazmian Empire period)
Zinciriye or Sultan Isa Madrasa in Mardin (1385)
Hypostyle interior of the Alâeddin Mosque in Konya (12th-13th centuries)
Seljuk mosaic tile decoration from the Kubadabad Palace (early 13th-century Anatolia)
Courtyard of the Sultan Han caravanserai, built in 1229 on the road between Aksaray and Konya
Interior of the Çifte Minareli Medrese in Erzurum (c. 1250)
Entrance portal of the Karatay Madrasa in Konya (c. 1251), with muqarnas and ablaq decoration
Tile decoration inside the Karatay Madrasa in Konya (c. 1251)
Stone-carved decoration in the entrance portal of the Ince Minareli Medrese in Konya (c. 1265)
Entrance and minarets of the Gök Medrese in Sivas (1271–2)
Döner Kümbet in Kayseri (1276), the tomb of a Seljuk princess
Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir (1297), an example of a wooden hypostyle mosque
The Green Mosque in Iznik (late 14th century)<ref>{{Cite book|last=Goodwin|first=Godfrey|title=A History of Ottoman Architecture|publisher=Thames & Hudson|year=1971|isbn=0500274290|location=New York|pages=20}}</ref>
The Grand Mosque of Bursa (end of 14th century)
Tiled mihrab of the Green Mosque in Bursa (early 15th century)
Courtyard of the Bayezid II Mosque, Istanbul (late 15th century)
Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul (16th century), designed by Mimar Sinan
One of the chambers of the Topkapı Palace
Interior of Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul (early 17th century)
Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul (mid-18th century), an example of the Ottoman Baroque style
The sebil of Abdülhamid I, Istanbul (late 18th century)<ref>{{Cite book|last=Goodwin|first=Godfrey|title=A History of Ottoman Architecture|publisher=Thames & Hudson|year=1971|isbn=0500274290|location=New York}}</ref>
Entrance gates of the Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul (19th century)
Istanbul High School (19th century)
Examples of civil Ottoman architecture in Eskişehir
Yalı is a house or mansion constructed along the shores of the Bosphorus near Istanbul
Reception Hall of Abd ar-Rahman III at Madinat al-Zahra (10th century, caliphal period)
Aljaferia Palace in Zaragoza (11th century, Taifa period)
Almoravid Qubba in Marrakesh (early 12th century, Almoravid period)
Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh (12th century, Almohad period)
Giralda tower in Seville: former Almohad minaret (12th century) converted into a Christian bell tower
Kasbah Mosque in Tunis (13th century, Hafsid period)
Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes (14th century, Marinid period)
The Court of the Lions at the Alhambra, Granada (14th century, Nasrid period)
Dome of the Hall of Ambassadors in the Alcazar of Seville (14th century): an example of Mudejar architecture
Youssef Dey Mosque in Tunis (17th century): an example of Ottoman influence blended with local styles
Central mosque of Ghardaïa: an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Mihrab of the Mausoleum of Sultan Baybars in Damascus (built 1277-1281)
Complex of Sultan Qalawun in Cairo (built in 1284–85). It included a mausoleum, a madrasa, and a highly important maristan (hospital).<ref>{{Cite book|last=Raymond|first=André|title=Le Caire|publisher=Fayard|year=1993|isbn=9782213029832}}</ref>
Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad (built in 1318 and modified in 1335) at the Citadel of Cairo
The Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Hasan (built between 1356 and 1361), the largest and one of the most impressive Mamluk monuments{{sfn|Blair|Bloom|1995|p=82}}{{sfn|Williams|2018|p=78}}
Projecting entrance portal of the Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Barquq (built between 1384 and 1386)
Interior of a mausoleum in the Khanqah-Mosque of Faraj ibn Barquq (built between 1400 and 1411)
Twin minarets of Bab Zuweila, built between 1415 and 1420 for the nearby Mosque of al-Mu'ayyad Shaykh
Carved stone dome of the Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay (completed in 1474) in the Northern Cemetery of Cairo
Sabil of Qaytbay (1482) at the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem
Wikala of Sultan al-Ghuri (1505), example of an urban caravanserai in Cairo
Sabil-Kuttab of Abd ar-Rahman Katkhuda (1744), which combines Mamluk and Ottoman elements{{sfn|Williams|2018|p=230}}
Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque in Alexandria, built in the 1940s in a neo-Mamluk style
The Taj Mahal, the most famous building of Mughal architecture.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569-70 CE
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan, Pakistan
Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan
Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad
Baradri (a type of Mughal building) at Fatima Jinnah Park in Islamabad
Gol Gumbaz built by the Bijapur Sultanate in Deccani style
Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Pakistan
Sixty Dome Mosque in Bangladesh
Gate of Panembahan Senapati Mosque in Kotagede, Yogyakarta.
The Grand Mosque of the Masjid Agung in Central Java, Indonesia, features a multi-layered roof typical of Indonesian mosque architecture.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Indonesia, with Mughal and Dutch Colonial influences.
The Menara Kudus Mosque employs a Hindu-Buddhist temple-like structure as a minaret<ref name="Schoppert, P. 1997, p. 207">Schoppert, P., Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, p. 207, {{ISBN|962-593-232-1}}</ref>
Masjid Kampung Laut
Masjid Zahir
Kampung Hulu Mosque
Sultan Alaeddin Royal Mosque
Paloh Mosque
The Mosque of Arwa bint Ahmad in Jibla (11th century), an example of a hypostyle courtyard mosque
Great Mosque of Zabid, with one of the oldest surviving minarets in Yemen (circa 13th century)
Central dome of the Ashrafiyya Mosque in Ta'izz (circa 1397)
Shibam, an example of a historic fortified village
Minaret at the Jama Masjid in Delhi (mid-17th century)
alt=|The Qutb Minar and Quwwat al-Islam Mosque complex in Delhi, begun in the 1190s and expanded in the 13th to 14th centuries{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture}}
The Friday Mosque of Ahmedabad (1423), which prominently combines Islamic and indigenous Indian architectural forms{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture; VI. c. 1250–c. 1500; A. Eastern Islamic lands; 3. India}}
alt=|Fatehpur Sikri, a palatial complex begun in the 1560s by Akbar{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Fatehpur Sikri}}
Charminar in Hyderabad (1591), an example of architecture in the Deccan Sultanates{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Hyderabad}}
Room with fountain in the Muthamman Burj (1628–30), added by Shah Jahan inside the Agra Fort built by Akbar{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Agra}}
The Red Fort in Delhi, built between 1639 and 1648 as the citadel of Shah Jahan's new capital{{Sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Delhi}}
Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore (1635), notable for its tile-decorated surfaces{{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=250}}
alt=|Badshahi Mosque in Lahore ({{circa|1673}}–1674){{sfn|Bloom|Blair|2009|loc=Architecture; VII. c. 1500–c. 1900; D. India}}
alt=|Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad (1678){{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=277}}
The Asfi Mosque of the Bara Imambara complex in Lucknow ({{circa|1780}}){{sfn|Porter|Degeorge|2009|p=285}}

In 970 the Fatimids moving their center of power to Egypt and they founded another new capital, Cairo.

General view of the Northern Cemetery, part of the City of the Dead. Description: In the foreground are numerous tomb enclosures (called a hawsh), with their own entrances, usually containing tombs of a same family. In the distance, on the left, are the domes of medieval Mamluk mausoleums. In the far background are the low-cost housing blocs of Manshiyet Nasr rising into the Mokattam hills.

City of the Dead (Cairo)

General view of the Northern Cemetery, part of the City of the Dead. Description: In the foreground are numerous tomb enclosures (called a hawsh), with their own entrances, usually containing tombs of a same family. In the distance, on the left, are the domes of medieval Mamluk mausoleums. In the far background are the low-cost housing blocs of Manshiyet Nasr rising into the Mokattam hills.
Excavated remains of the former city of Fustat near Old Cairo
Domed mausoleum (Mashhad) of Sayyida Ruqayya, dating to Fatimid times
The tomb of Imam al-Shafi'i today. The mausoleum dates from the Ayyubid period but was restored many times since.
The Southern Cemetery, near the Citadel. Various Mamluk mausoleum complexes are visible, as is the Citadel Aqueduct in the distance. (Photograph from 1890.)
View of the Mausoleum and Khanqah of Khawand Tughay (or Umm Anuk), the wife of al-Nasir Muhammad, built before 1348 in the Northern Cemetery
The funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay (in a lithograph from 1848)
Exterior of the Hosh al-Basha, the mausoleum of the family of Muhammad Ali, begun in 1854
Map of the City of the Dead (Southern cemetery) in c.1800 from Description de l'Égypte – in French it was labelled Ville des tombeaux (Town of the Tombs)
Interior of the Qubbat Afandina, a royal mausoleum built in a "Neo-Mamluk" style in 1894
The City of the Dead in 1955
View of the Northern Cemetery today from the Salah Salem road, with the mausoleum of Ahmed Hassanein (d. 1946) in the foreground (right) and the Moqattam hills in the distance
Map of the main areas and key locations of the Qarafa necropolis, within Cairo
Typical tombs and tomb enclosures (known as a hawsh) in the cemeteries
Southern Cemetery, near the Citadel, interspersed with Mamluk-era monuments (the Sultaniyya Mausoleum, right, and the mausoleum of Amir Qawsun, left)
Dome of the Imam al-Shafi'i Mausoleum in the Southern Cemetery
One of the domed tomb chambers in the Hosh al-Basha, the mausoleum (hawsh) of Muhammad Ali's family, 19th century
The Sayyida Nafisa Mosque
Mix of residential blocs, highways, and cemeteries near the Mosque of Sayyida Aisha (lower left)
Main road in the Qaytbay district of the Northern Cemetery
Typical cemetery enclosures in the Northern Cemetery, seen along Salah Salem highway
The Mausoleum of Tarabay al-Sharifi and remains of its funerary complex at Bab al-Wazir
A tomb structure in the City of the Dead, adapted as a residence

The City of the Dead, or Cairo Necropolis, also referred to as the Qarafa (القرافة; locally pronounced as al-'arafa), is a series of vast Islamic-era necropolises and cemeteries in Cairo, Egypt.

Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011

2011 Egyptian revolution

The 2011 Egyptian revolution, also known as the 25 January revolution (ثورة ٢٥ يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), began on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.

The 2011 Egyptian revolution, also known as the 25 January revolution (ثورة ٢٥ يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), began on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.

Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011
Hosni Mubarak in 2009
Gamal Mubarak in 2006
Egyptian population pyramid in 2005; many people age 30 and younger, despite education, have difficulty finding work.
A poor neighbourhood in Cairo
Protester holds Egyptian flag during protests which began on 25 January 2011.
The "Day of Revolt", 25 January
Protest in Tahrir Square, 4 February
Celebrating the announcement of Hosni Mubarak's resignation in Tahrir Square, 11 February
Protesters in Alexandria
Tahrir Square memorial made by demonstrators in honour of those who died during the protests, regarded as shuhada' شهداء (martyrs). The photo captions attribute most of the deaths to police violence.
Graffiti at Tahrir square, commemorating martyrs of the revolution
Sign with protester demands
Shredded documents at the State Security Investigations Service
Voter line in Mokattam, Cairo, during the 19 March 2011 constitutional referendum extending from the built-up area of Mokattam into the desert. The referendum had an unprecedented voter turnout of over 18 million.
Female protester wearing a niqāb
One of two army vehicles burnt during the army attacks on 9 April 2011
An Egyptian blocking a SWAT van in response to the protests
Man holding a poster reading "Facebook, #jan25, The Egyptian Social Network" during the 2011 protests
People take to the streets on 7 April 2008, in Mahalla, Egypt. In the days following the planned strike on 6 April that was shut down by government force, a series of uprisings and military reprisals turned the city of Mahalla, about two hours north of Cairo, into a conflict zone. Rising food prices fueled the unrest. The 6 April Movement was formed in the wake of the uprisings which fed revolutionary sentiment and helped lead to the 2011 revolution.

During the uprising, the capital, Cairo, was described as "a war zone" and the port city of Suez saw frequent violent clashes.