Cairo

Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Qasr El Nil Bridge
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo weather observations by French savants
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
The interior of Ramses Station
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

- Cairo

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Arabian Peninsula

Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula
The geographical and political boundaries of the Arabian Peninsula
The constituent countries of Arabia
The Haraz Mountains in western Yemen include Arabia's highest mountain, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur near Sanaa
Ancient coins from Failaka Island, Kuwait
Sabaean inscription addressed to the god Almaqah, mentioning five Ancient Yemeni gods, two reigning sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC
Age of the Caliphs
Arab tribes before the spread of Islam
Portuguese colonies in Arabia.
Ottoman territories on the Arabian Peninsula acquired between 1517 and 1590 (See: list of territories)
Arabian peninsula during 1900s.
The peninsula in right before World War I.
Jebel Hafeet on the border of Oman and the UAE, near the city of Al Ain. It can be considered an outlier of Al Hajar Mountains.<ref name="Gardner 01-2004"/>
The northeastern Hajar Mountains, shared by Oman and the UAE, as seen from the desert of Sharjah
The Dhofar mountainous region in southeastern Oman, where the city of Salalah is located, is a tourist destination known for its annual khareef season
The Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, contiguous with the Omani Dhofar range, as seen from the city of Al-Mukalla
Terraced fields in the Harazi subrange of the Sarawat Mountains in western Yemen
Jabal Sawdah of the 'Asir range in southwestern Saudi Arabia, in Asir Region near the border with Yemen
The Faifa mountains in the Jazan Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.
The Midian Mountains of Tabuk Province, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, near the border with Jordan
The Aja subrange of the Shammar Mountains in the region of Ha'il, northern Saudi Arabia
The Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwayr mountainous region in the Najd, southwest of the Saudi capital city of Riyadh
The old city of Sanaa, Yemen. Peninsular Arabs trace their lineage to Qahtan, who was reportedly based in Yemen.
A map of the peninsula made in 1720 by the German publisher Christoph Weigel
Ain Zubaydah was built to water the pilgrims in Mecca by order of Zubaidah bint Ja'far
Omar Mosque in Dumat al-Jandal, Saudi Arabia.
The facade of a tomb with its details and architectural elements.
Qasr al Farid, tomb in Archeological site Mada'in Saleh, Al-`Ula, Saudi Arabia
Diriyah the capital of the first Saudi state
Dam of Ma'rib
Himyarite King Dhamar'ali Yahbur II
Arad Fort in Bahrain
Nizwa Fort in Oman
The ruins of Umayyad city in the historic Jumeirah district of Dubai.
Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), Bahrain.
The head and body of a Saluki is made of stone from the Al-Magar civilization, in the Neolithic period, (about 8000 BC).
Midian

Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon became a peripheral region of the Islamic world, in which the most important medieval Islamic states were based at various times in such far away cities as Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo.

Arab League

Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Eastern Africa, and Western Asia.

Arab League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic and Palestine
Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
 1940s 1950s 1960s  1970s
Headquarters of the Arab League, Cairo.
Administrative divisions in the Arab League.
2013 Arab League Summit Logo
OAPEC Members

The Arab League was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 initially with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

Coptic diaspora

Copts

Copts ( niremənkhēmi; الْقِبْط al-qibṭ) are a Christian ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who have primarily inhabited the area of modern Egypt and Sudan since antiquity.

Copts ( niremənkhēmi; الْقِبْط al-qibṭ) are a Christian ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who have primarily inhabited the area of modern Egypt and Sudan since antiquity.

Coptic diaspora
Coptic icon of St. Mark
The Hanging Church in Coptic Cairo.
President Nasser welcomes a delegation of Coptic bishops (1965)
Egyptian Coptic monks at the American Colony, Jerusalem, between 1898 and 1914.
Holy Virgin Mary Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Khartoum.
St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Church in Bellaire, Texas (Greater Houston). There are about 1–2 million Egyptian born Copts living outside of Egypt, and are known as the Coptic diaspora.
Coptic and Arabic inscriptions in an Old Cairo church.
Coptic Orthodox Cross with traditional Coptic script reading: 'Jesus Christ, the Son of God'
Halim El-Dabh at a Cleveland festival in 2009.
Boutros Boutros-Ghali

His name was selected from a glass bowl containing the three shortlisted candidates by a blindfolded boy at a ceremony in Cairo's St Mark's Cathedral.

President of Egypt

Executive head of state of Egypt and the defacto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

Executive head of state of Egypt and the defacto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

Presidential Standard, 1972–1984

Abdeen Palace, in Old Cairo, Cairo.

Grand Egyptian Museum

Archaeological museum under construction in Giza, Egypt.

Archaeological museum under construction in Giza, Egypt.

GEM in 2019
Statue of Ramesses II inside the Grand Egyptian Museum
The museum under construction in 2019
Tutankhamun's death mask

On 25 August 2006 the Statue of Ramesses II was moved from Ramses Square in Cairo to the Giza Plateau, in anticipation of construction of the museum.

Cinema of Egypt

Poster for the Egyptian film Yahya el hub (1938).
Poster for the Egyptian film Berlanti (1944).

The cinema of Egypt refers to the flourishing film industry based in Cairo which is known to be the Hollywood of the MENA region.

A plan of Fatimid Cairo (before 1200 CE), as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole, showing the approximate layout of the city and the location of the palaces.

Fatimid Great Palaces

A plan of Fatimid Cairo (before 1200 CE), as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole, showing the approximate layout of the city and the location of the palaces.
Carved wooden panel with images of animals and humans, believed to have belonged to a door in one of the Fatimid palaces. (On display at the Louvre.)
An iwan in the maristan (hospital) of Sultan Qalawun which incorporates remains from the Fatimid Western Palace which previously stood here.
A pair of wooden beams carved with scenes of animals and humans which belonged to the Fatimid Western Palace. (On display at the Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.)

The Great Palaces of the Fatimid Caliphs (or Great Fatimid Palaces, among other name variants) were a vast and lavish palace complex built in the late 10th century in Cairo, Egypt, to house the Fatimid caliphs, their households, and the administration of their state.

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Baghdad

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An 1808 picture of Baghdad from the print collection in Travels in Asia and Africa, etc. (ed. J. P. Berjew, British Library)
An 1468 painting of Floods in Baghdad by Shirwan
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 AD
Baghdad Museum is a local history museum. It features 70 scenes from different periods using lifesize models presenting Baghdad life
Courtyard of Mustansiriya madrasa, established by Al-Mustansir in 1227
Khan Murjan, built in the 14th century as a caravanserai
Al Khulafa mosque retains an Abbasid-era minaret
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD)
Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 CE
Central Asian Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur sacked the city and spared almost no one
The Shabandar Café in Baghdad, 1923
Manadotory Iraq, 1921
Three Iraqi Levies, who volunteered in 1946 for service as ground crew with the Royal Air Force, look over the side of the ORBITA as it pulls into the docks at Liverpool. Left to right, they are: Sergeant Macko Shmos, Lance Corporal Adoniyo Odisho and Corporal Yoseph Odisho.
Freedom Monument, Tahrir square in Downtown Baghdad
View of downtown Baghdad, March 2017
Baghdad as seen from the International Space Station
Al-Ma'mun's Telecommunication Center in downtown Baghdad
The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra performing in July 2007
The National Ballet performing in 2007
Chaldean Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows
The Baghdad Convention Center
Qushla Square
Madina Stadium
Al-Shaab Stadium
Baghdad Eyalet in 1609 CE.
Baghdad Vilayet in 1900 CE.
Souk in Baghdad, 1876 CE.
Kadhimiya Mosque
Armenian Orthodox Church of Baghdad
Saray Mosque
Khilani Mosque
Baghdadi Museum
Iraq National Museum
Al Zawra'a Park
Al Salam Palace
Al Faw Palace
Abu Nawas Street

Baghdad (بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.

Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, Cairo, Egypt

Coptic Orthodox Church

Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, servicing Africa and the Middle East.

Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, servicing Africa and the Middle East.

Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, Cairo, Egypt
Coptic Icon in the Coptic Altar of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Makurian wall painting depicting a Nubian bishop and Virgin Mary (11th century)
Arabic Coptic Prayer book, 1760
Coptic monks, between 1898 and 1914
A modern Coptic cathedral in Aswan.
The Agpeya is a breviary used in Coptic Orthodox Christianity to pray the canonical hours at seven fixed prayer times of the day, in the eastward direction.
Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon
St. Mark Coptic Orthodox Church in Bellaire, Texas
Archangel Raphael Coptic Orthodox Church – Houston, Clear Lake City, Texas
St Mark's Coptic Orthodox Church in London, England.
Pope Shenouda III, the 117th Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Mark the Evangelist (1971–2012).
Coptic icon of Saint Mark the Evangelist, the apostolic founder of the Church of Alexandria

The See of Alexandria is titular, and today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo.

Mecca

City and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

City and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910

News reports in November 1916 via contact in Cairo with returning Hajj pilgrims, stated that with the Ottoman Turkish authorities gone, the Hajj of 1916 was free of the previous massive extortion and monetary demands made by the Turks who were agents of the Ottoman government.