Calciphylaxis

vascular calcification
Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare painful syndrome of calcification of the small blood vessels located within the fatty tissue and deeper layers of the skin, blood clots, and the death of skin cells due to too little blood flow.wikipedia
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Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failurerenal insufficiencyend-stage renal disease
It is seen mostly in people with end-stage kidney disease but can occur in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and rarely in people with normally functioning kidneys.
Hypocalcemia, due to 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D 3 deficiency (caused by stimulation of FGF-23 and reduction of renal mass), and resistance to the calcemic action of parathyroid hormone. Osteocytes are responsible for the increased production of FGF-23, which is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme 1-alpha-hydroxylase (responsible for the conversion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ). Later, this progresses to secondary hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy, and vascular calcification that further impairs cardiac function. An extreme consequence is the occurrence of the rare condition named calciphylaxis.

Calcification

calcifieduncalcifiedcalcifying
Calciphylaxis is one type of extraskeletal calcification.
Extraskeletal calcification, e.g. calciphylaxis

Sodium thiosulfate

sodium thiosulphatehyposodium hyposulfite
Sodium thiosulfate
It has been used as treatment of calciphylaxis in hemodialysis people with end-stage kidney disease. There is apparently an incompletely understood phenomenon whereby this causes severe metabolic acidosis in some patients.

Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clot
Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare painful syndrome of calcification of the small blood vessels located within the fatty tissue and deeper layers of the skin, blood clots, and the death of skin cells due to too little blood flow.

Necrosis

necroticnecrotizingnecrotic tissue
Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare painful syndrome of calcification of the small blood vessels located within the fatty tissue and deeper layers of the skin, blood clots, and the death of skin cells due to too little blood flow.

Skin

cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare painful syndrome of calcification of the small blood vessels located within the fatty tissue and deeper layers of the skin, blood clots, and the death of skin cells due to too little blood flow.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare painful syndrome of calcification of the small blood vessels located within the fatty tissue and deeper layers of the skin, blood clots, and the death of skin cells due to too little blood flow.

Kidney

kidneysrenalrenal circulation
It is seen mostly in people with end-stage kidney disease but can occur in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and rarely in people with normally functioning kidneys.

Dialysis

kidney dialysisrenal dialysisdialysis machine
Calciphylaxis is a rare but serious disease, believed to affect 1-4% of all dialysis patients.

Milk-alkali syndrome

Similar extraskeletal calcifications are observed in some people with high levels of calcium in the blood, including people with milk-alkali syndrome, sarcoidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, and hypervitaminosis D.

Sarcoidosis

pulmonary sarcoidosissarcoidBoeck's Sarcoidosis
Similar extraskeletal calcifications are observed in some people with high levels of calcium in the blood, including people with milk-alkali syndrome, sarcoidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, and hypervitaminosis D.

Hyperparathyroidism

Foot NoteH'''yperparathyroidismHyperparathyroidism, unspec.
Similar extraskeletal calcifications are observed in some people with high levels of calcium in the blood, including people with milk-alkali syndrome, sarcoidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, and hypervitaminosis D.

Hypervitaminosis D

vitamin D poisoningvitamin D toxicityexcessive vitamin D
Similar extraskeletal calcifications are observed in some people with high levels of calcium in the blood, including people with milk-alkali syndrome, sarcoidosis, primary hyperparathyroidism, and hypervitaminosis D.

Warfarin

coumadincoumarinrat poison
Certain medications such as warfarin can also result in calciphylaxis in rare cases. Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium-phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Livedo reticularis

lacy skin pigmentation
The first skin changes in calciphylaxis lesions are mottling of the skin and induration in a livedo reticularis pattern.

Eschar

escharoticslough
As tissue thrombosis and infarction occurs, a black, leathery eschar in an ulcer with adherent black slough are found.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Severe forms of calciphylaxis may cause diastolic heart failure from cardiac calcification, called heart of stone.

Hypersensitivity

hypersensitivity reactionhypersensitivehypersensitivities
In other words, calciphylaxis is not a hypersensitivity reaction (i.e., allergic reaction) leading to sudden local calcification.

Metastatic calcification

calcifications
The current belief is that in end-stage kidney disease, abnormal calcium and phosphate homeostasis result in the deposition of calcium in the vessels, also known as metastatic calcification.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium-phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Protein C deficiency

protein C
Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium-phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Protein S deficiency

protein SS deficiency
Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium-phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Hypoalbuminemia

hypoalbuminaemialow blood albumin levelsAlbumin
Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium-phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium-phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus.

Vasculitis

vasculitidesvasculiticvasculitis, central nervous system
It shows arterial calcification and occlusion in the absence of vasculitis.